Like the Preliminary note on Part ‘A’, the preliminary note of part ‘B’ of the book, is also being given hereby. This would certainly facilitate those readers, who are quite new to the subject, in easily and correctly understanding the implications of the subjects, included therein.

1. Gems-trio : Right faith, Right knowledge & Right conduct.

Moksha Marg is the largest of all the four parts and contains 396 Gathas, divided into 18 chapters.

1. Moksha-marg or the Path of Salvation/way to liberation deals with Gem’s trio (Three jewels – Right belief, Right knowledge and right conduct), as it is constituted by these three “Right belief”, according to Yashstilaka, “is the prime cause of salvation; just as the foundation is the mainstay of a palace; good luck that of beauty; life that of bodily enjoyment; royal power that of victory; culture that of nobility, and policy that of Government.” Right knowledge and Right conduct are acquired through Right-belief. Though they are related, as cause and effect, yet they are born simultaneously, just as light comes with the flame.

2. Although various Acharyas have defined Right faith in various ways; yet all those definitions, come to the same findings and say that from practical point of view, Right Kundakunda in “Darshan Pahud” characterizes the nature of Right belief as the possession of firm belief in six kinds of Dravyas (substances) nine Padarthas (essential elements) five Astikayas (embodied beings) and seven tattvas. In “Moksha Pahuda”, the same author defines Right belief as belief in non-violent Dharma, (conduct), in the Deva (God) bereft of eighteen kinds of faults, and in the sermons of the Omniscient. In “Niyam-Sara”, the same author regarads the belief in perfect souls, scripture, and six Dravyas (substance) as determining the belief in six dravyas, five Astikayas and nine padarthas as indicative of Right-belief, Vasunandi in his “Sravakachara”.

Destructive nature of Right belief as the true and unshakable conviction in perfect souls, the scriptures and seven tattvas.

Swami Karikeya, in addition to the belief in nine padarthas, acquired after ascertaining their nature through epistemological medium of Pramana and Naya, the person desirous of possessing Samyag-darshan must also given ordence to the momentus principles of Anekant and Syedavada. Acharya Samanabhadra defines Right belief as belief in “Apta” (Dev/God), scriptures (Shastra), and Guru (Teacher), by one who has eschewed the three kinds of follies, and eight kinds of pride and has espoused the eight essentials of Right-belief. Some other Acharyas like UmaSwami, Amritchandracharya etc. unanimously depict Right belief as belief in seven tattavas. The reason is : one who beliefs in seven Tattvas will automatically believe in nine Padarthas (as nine-Padarthas means seven Tattvas plus Punya and Papa-which are two off shoots of the Asrava-Tattva). Similarly one who believes in seven Tattvas, believes in Perfect souls (or Aptas or True God), scriptures based on their Divya-Dbwani (Divine sound) and Gurus or ascetics, who follow the Path of Liberation as preached by the embodied perfect souls (or Arihantas/Tirthankars). And there can be no path of liberation without the correct understanding of Anekantavad (manifoldedness) and Syadavada (Relativism). As all these beads combined, make the necklace; therefore one should not be confused by these different definitions. They are different ways of expressing one and the same thing.

Right belief- is said to have eight limbs or organs, which are:-

1. “Nihsanketa” : A right believer does not doubt the multiple nature of Reality seeking expression from Omniscient Jina.

2. “Nihkanchhlta” : A right believer never hankers after the wordly opulence and empirical pleasures; as he is convinced that they are transitory, fraught with miseries procreative of sin and evil and are caused by the filth of karmas.

3. “Nirvichikitsak” : A right believer has no feeling of disgust at the various bodily conditions, caused by disease, hunger, thirst, cold, heat etc.

4. “Amurhadristi” :- A Right believer is not overwhelmed by fear, inferiority and greed for profit; does not recognize violence as Dharma and is free from stupidity.

5. “Upaguhanatva” :- A Right believer veils the shortcomings of the spiritual aspirants,

6. Sthitikarana : A Right believer tries to re-establish on spiritual aspire in the path, by reminding him of his innate glory.

7. Vatsalya : A right believer has deep affection for spiritual matters, for integral principle of Non-violence and for his spiritual-brotheren.

8. Prabhavana :- A Right believer knows and works for glorifying one’s own self with ten Dharmas or with triple jewels. He also disseminates the knowledge about the path of liberation and does everything to properly propagate it.

The belief of any one can not be said to be Right or complete, unless and until, he does not observe all the eight-organs, as mentioned above.

(4) There are four characteristics, which accompany the subsistence of Right-belief (1) Manifestation of passions in mild form (Prasama); (2) Turning away from the causes which enhance worldly career (Samvega) (3) Expression of the non-sceptical attitude towards the substances (Astikayas); and (4) Manifestation of Universal compassion (Anukampa).

There are three other characteristics, which are possessed by the Right believer (1) Censuring his own sins in his own mind (Ninda); (2) Divulging his own weaknesses of conduct before his teacher (Garha); and (3) devotion to Arihantas (Bhakti).

Furthermore, the Right believer is exceedingly scrupulous in not allowing the filth of 8 kinds of Prides to vitiate his behavior; namely intoxciations of (1) learning (2) honour, (3) family (4) Caste (5) Power (6) Opulence (7) Penance and (8) body.

(5) Right-knowledge is knowledge, derived from the perfect knowledge (keval-jnan) of the Omniscient Tirthankaras or Arhats. The Ganadharas did make it available in the common language or people, at large. They have been the real messengers/ambassadors of Jain – Scriptures given by Tirthankaras.

(6) They did reduce it in the form of twelve Angas and fourteen Purvas.

The Angas are twelve :-

1. The Acharanga comprising rules of conduct for ascetics in 18000 Padas (words);

2. The Sutrakritanga – Comprising information about knowledge, modesty etc. of religious rites and difference between the rites of one’s own religion and those of others. It contains 36,000 Padas (words);

3. The Sthan-anga-dealing with Sthanas of points of view in considering Jiva, Pudgala and other substances. It contains 42,000 Padas;

4. The Samavaya-anga-dealing with similarities that arise from the point of view of Substance, Area, Time and Though actions. It contains 164,000 Padas.

5. Vyakhya-Prajnapati-Anga or Bhagwati Vyavahar-Prajnapati. It contains the 60,000 questions and their answers, which the chief disciples of Lord Mahavir put to the Lord. It has 2,28,000 Padas.

6. Jnatridharma-katha-anga or Dharm-Katha-anga-dealing with the nature and characteristics of essential objects (Padarthas) i.e. Jiva etc. It consists 6,56,000 Padas.

7. The Upasakadhyayan-anga That gives knowledge about the 11 stages of the householders life and other rules of conduct for the householder. It contains 1,170,000 Padas.

8. The Antakria-dasa-anga-gives details about ten ascetics, who in the period of each of the twenty four Tirthankar, practiced asceticism of very high type and consequently took birth in the five Anuttar-Vimanas. It has 9,244,000 Padas.

9. The Prasna-Vyakaran-anga-dealing with the system to be adopted while answering various questions. It has 9316000 Padas.

10. The Vipaka-Sutra-anga-dealing with bondage, fruition, and continuance of karmas and their intensity and mildness. It has 18,400,000 Padas.

11. The Dristi-Pravad-anga – divided into five parts : Parikarmas Sutras, Prathamanayoga, fourteen Purvagata and five chulikas :

Five Parikarmas are :

a) Chandra-Prajnapati – giving account of motion, per satellite of the moon, Variation of Lunar days and months and the effects of the eclipses of moon etc. It has 503,000 Padas.

b) The Surya-Prajnapati dealing with the greatness, influence, satellites etc. of the Sun. It has 503,000 Padas;

c) Jamboodvipa – Prajnapati containing the description of Jambu-dvipa. It has 325,000 Padas.

d) Dvipa-Prajnapati – containing account of Continents, Ocean, all kinds of Celestial beings and their abodes and the sites of Jain Temples. It has 5,236,000 Padas.

e) Vyakhya-Prajnapati- dealing with nine padarthas Jiva etc. it consists 8,433,000 Padas.

II. The Sutras contain an account of 363 non-jain heretic faiths, prevalent at the time of Lord Mahavir.

III. Prathamanuyoga deals with the life histories of 63 Shalaka-persons (Great-personages): 24 Tirthankaras, 12 Chakaravartins, 9 Narayanas, 9 Prati-Narayanas and 9 Balabhadras.

IV. The 14 Purvas or Purva-gattas are as follows:

01. The utpada-Purva of 10,000,000 Padas;

02. Agrayaniya-Purva of 9,600,000 Padas;

03. Viryanuvada-Purva of 7,000,000 Padas;

04. Asti-nasti-Pravada-Purva of 6,000,000 Padas;

05. Jnan Pravada Purva of 9,999,999 Padas;

06. Satya-pravada Purva of 10,000,000 Padas;

07. Atma Pravada Purva of 260,000,000 Padas;

08. Karma-Pravada-Purva of 180,000,000 Padas;

09. Pratyaknyan-Purva of 8,400,000 Padas;

10. Vidyanuvada- Purva of 17,000,000 Padas;

11. Kalyana-Vada Purva of 260,000,000 Padas;

12. Pranavada-Purva of 130,000,000 Padas;

13. Kriyavisal-a-Purva of 10,000,000 Padas;

14. Trilok-bindu-sara Purva of 125,000,000 Padas; (1)

The above account of Canonical scriptures is in accordance with Digambar tradition. The Svetambar account given in Samva-yanga and Nandi Sutra differ only in respect of huge numerical figures and in certain other particulars.

The important thing to remember is; Digambaras declare the loss of whole canonical literature except some portion of Dristivada-Purva, which were known to Shri Dharasenacharya of the 1st Cen. A.D. He got the whole knowledge, he had, recorded in Sata-Khandagam by his disciple Acharya Bhutabali and Pushpadanta. Thus the sacred books of Digambaras came to be written in A.D.

57. On the contrary, the Svetambaras declare the loss of Purvas and some potions of Acharanga and other canons only. In this connection, we must bear in mind the following observations by Dr. Hermen-Jacobi, :-

“The canonical books of the Shvetambaras are not works by Mahavir himself, but some of them claim to be discourses delivered by him to Indrabhuti, Gautam, which his disciple “Ganadhar” Sudharma related to his disciple Jambu Swami. The reduction of the Cannon took place under Devardhigani in 960 after Nirvana (A.D. 454). Before that time, the sacred Texts and even afterwards, they have undergone many alterations, transposition of parts, additions, etc., traces of which can still be pointed out. Alongwith these alterations, there seems to have gone on a gradual change of the language, in which the texts were composed.” (2)

There is however, much canonical Jain literature in various Praktits, Apabhramsa, Sanskrit, several vernacular of India etc. including various Puranas, Sutra etc.

The sacred Jain literature is generally divided into four categories of (1) Prathamanuyoga depicts man’s character and tell save out the life stories of 63 great personalities including 24 Tirthankaras. The Mahapuranas, Harivamsa Purna, Padma-Purna, Pandava Purana etc. illustrate this Anuyog. Karananuyoga deals with the Jain Geography and four grades of life. This anuyoga can be illustrated by Trilokasava, Tiloyapannati etc. The charananuyoga dwells upon the conduct of the householders and ascetics. The Mulachara, Bhagwati-Aradhana, Gurushartha Siddhiyupaya, Ratna-Karand, Shravakachara etc., come within the scope of this. The lost anuhoga i.e. Dravyanuyoga investigates the nature of soul and non soul the with seven elements or nine padarthas. Pravachan-, Panchastimaya, etc. deal with this Anujoganattvartha Sutra is the embodiment of the last three anuyogas and is with very little variations accepted by both Digambaras and Svetambaras.

Jnan/Knowledge is of five kinds Mati (sensoryl), Sarut (scriptural), Avadhi (Cleirvoyance), Manah-paryaya (Tele-pathic) and keval (perfect). The first two are indirect and the last three direct.

(7) Distinction between perception and knowledge.

Here, it is necessary to throw light on the distinction between Darshan (Perception) and Jnan (Knowledge). Acharya Virsena defines Jnan/knowledge as the comprehension of both the generic and specific qualities of the external objects. When the self turns inwards and introspects, it knows itself and this is referred to as Darshan by him. Hence Darshan is considered ‘Antarmukh’ (introvert) while Jnan is described as ‘Banirmukh’ (extrovert). He does not accept the simple distinction in terms ofe apprehension of generic qualities (Darshan) and comprehension of specific characteristics (Jnan).

The reason he gives is : that it is logically not possible to conceive of the general without considering the particular and vice versa. Particularly without particularly is an impossibility. (1)

(B) Implications of Right conduct

Conduct has been said to be the root of Dharma (Charittani Dhammus mulain). As a matter of fact, intellectual attainments and habits are no security of good conduct, unless, they are supported by religious principles. A patient may know about his ailments; by religious principles. A patient may know about his ailments; he may also know about the remedies thereof; but unless and until he takes the necessary medicines as and when necessary, it is not possible for him to get rid of his ailments and recover. It is certain that the man, who is not free from bad conduct, who has not subdued his passions and who has not set his mind to concentrate for self-realisation, can not achieve the right aim and object of human life and reach Nirvana by mere faith and knowledge.

The question arises: What is right conduct ? The simple answer is : Right conduct consists in living a life, in accordance with the light, gains by the first two jewels i.e. Right-belief and Right knowledge.

The rules of conduct must directly or indirectly be conducive to the achievements of the real aim of life; they must be such as to keep the body under self contro and elevate the soul to higher aspirations of life. It means, the man must abstain doing bad deeds and devote his energy to do good.

Swami Samant-bhadracharya has said, “From the destruction of the elements of love and hatred are destroyed five kinds of sins, Himsa (violence) and the rest; for no one would ever be found serving kings, who has no desire to earn his living. Himsa (injury to life), falsehood, theft, unchastity and attachment to worldly goods – the stopping of these five channels of Sin is the conduct suitable for him, who is endowed with Right knowledge.

(9) Sakala (Absolute/unqualified) and Nikal (Partial/qualified) conduct:-

Right conduct is of two kinds : Sakala (Perfect or unqualified) and Nikala (imperfect of qualified), of these the unqualified is observed by ascetics, who have renounced all the things and the qualified by laymen still entangled in worldly affairs. (1)

The house holders conduct (Nikal charita) consists of five vritas (Vows) namely Non-violence, truth, non-stealing, chastity/celivacy and Non-Possession; three Guna-Vritas (supplementary vows) namely Dig-vrita (limiting one’s worldly acitivity to fixed points in all ten directions), Desha-Vrita (limiting worldly activities to lesse dimension’s then life-long one) and Anarthadand-Vrita (renouncing the commission of purposeless activities) and four Shiksha-Vritas named Samayik (Self contemplation and Equanimity), Prosadhopacasa (fasting/control over diet), Bhogopabhoga-Parimana (limiting the objects of enjoyments and re-enjoyments) and AthithiSamvibhaga (Co-sharing the ascetics and other religious persons).

A Sarvak (Jain householder) abstains himself from seven strong bad habits (Vyasan) namely (1) Gambling (2) Flesh eating (3) drinking wine and taking other intoxications (4) Debauchery & Prostitutions (5) Hunting, (6) Theft, and (7) Defiling other man’s wives.

The eight Mulgunas (essential qualifications) of a Sravak are : Renunciation of meat-eating, wine-drinking and taking of honey alongwith that of eating five udumber fruits. According to Swami Samant Bhadra, the eight Mulgunas (essential qualifications) of a Sravak are : Partial observance of five vows of Non-violence, Truth, Non-stealing, Celibacy and Non-possession alongwith total abstinence from intoxication, Non-vegetarian food and honey. A Sravak in order to be full-fledged, has got to cross eleven stages or eleven Pratimas named : (1) Darshana (2) Vrita (3) Samayika (4) Prosadha (5) Sachitta Tyaga (6) Rartribhukti tyaga (7) Brahmacharya (8) Arrambhatyaga (9) Parigranatyagi (10) Anumati-tyagi and (11) Uddista-tyaga Pratimas.

1. Darshan Pratima – In this stage, the Shravak tries attain right belief and do away with Mithyatva (falsehood/wrong belief). He renunciates seven Vyasanas (addictions), as mentioned above; starts taking pure filtered water only and finished his meals before sun-set. He adopts the six necessary duties of a Shravak i.e. (1) Worship of Paramatma/God i.e. Arihantas and Siddhas (2) Service of the teachers of ascetics (3) Study of scriptures (4) Exercise of Self restraint (5) Observance of austerities and (6) Giving of four kinds of charities.

2. Vrita Pratima – This is the stage, when the Sravak undertake observe the vows, as described above.

3. Samayika-Pratima – The Sravak, in this stage starts regular worship and meditation in general for 48 minutes, three times every day.

4. fortnight each lunar month in order to conquer the bodily ailments and infirmities as well as acquire/earn spiritual advancement;

5. Sachitta-tyaga-Pratima – In this stage, the Sravak abstains from consumption of sentient things e.g. fresh green vegetables etc.;

6. Ratri-bhukti-tyaga-Pratima – In this stage, the Sravak gives up taking food at night;

7. Brahmacharya-Pratima – The stage of Celibacy;

8. Arambha-Tyaga-Pratima – Abandonment of merely worldly engagements and occupations;

9-11. These three Pratimas/stages are preparatory to monk’s life. They assist one in gradually renouncing the householder’s life and retiring into some calm and quiet place to seek truth. In Parigraha-Tyaga- he renounces possessions external as well as internal; in Anumati-tyaga, he does not give his consent or concurrence for worldly affairs; and in uddistatyga – he refuses to take anything specially prepared for him. He keeps a Loin-cloth and moves like a hermit.

After having crossed these eleven stages or Pratimas, a Sravak/Sravika himself/herself to be initiated into the order of monks/nuns and starts observing Sakal Charitra (Absolute-conduct) instead of the Nikal-charita (partial-conduct).

12. Mulgunas (Essential qualification) of an ascetic

A jain ascetic or monk has got to fulfill 28 essential qualifications (Mul-gunas) in order to justify his status. Those essential qualifications are as follows :-

Non stealing, Celibacy and non-possession;

II. Five rules of Carefulness (Samitis) – namely, being carefull in walking, speaking bodily wants, handling of objects and answering calls of nature;

III. Six necessary duties – namely contemplation or equanimity in friends and foes, (Samayik), Praying twenty-four Tirthankars (Chatruvinsati-Jiva-Stavan), worship (Vandana), Self-introspection (Expiation), Self-mortification or penance (Kayotsarg), and self Meditation (Pratyakhyan);

IV Control of five senses (Panch-Indriya-Nigraha) i.e. control of the sense of touch, sense of taste, sense of smell, sense of seeing and sense of hearing;

V Hair-plucking or Hair uprooting (Kesh-Lonch), Nudity i.e. (Wearing no cloth or ornament), abstaining from taking bath and brushing teeth, Sleeping on bare ground taking food once a day and that also while standing.

(13) Austerities : External and Internal

The place of austerities, in the conduct of a monk, is very important. Sramanachar gives utmost importance to austerities and meditation. While defining austerities The ‘Satkhandagam” says that Tapa (austerities) means the extirpation of desire in order to actualize/implement the Triple jewels of desire in order to actualize/implement the Triple jewels of Right-belief, Right Knowledge and Right conduct. It implies the renunciation and rejection of desire, which is the real and internal. The former is so called because of the preponderance of the physical and perceptible abandonment, while the latter is so called, on account of the inner curving of mind.

The External austerities are six in kind : 1. Anasana (Fasting) 2. Avamaudarya (Eating less than the fill); 3. Vrithaparisamkhyan (Predetermination regarding the number of houses to be visited by a monk for his meal, manner of taking food, specific type of food, the qualifications of the giver of food and the time to take food); 4. Raspartiyaga (Abstinence from one or more of the six articles of food-milk, curd, ghee, Pacrid, bitter, astringent, sour and sweet); 5. Vivikta Sayyasan (Choice of secluded place, fit for meditation, self-study and chastity) and 6. Kaya-klesha (Enduring bodily discomforts in order to alleviate attachment to pleasures e.g. remaining in the sun in summer.)

Like External austerities, internal austerities are also six in number 1. Prayaschita (the process of Repentence), by virtue of which the monk seeks freedom from the transgressions committed. 2. Vinaya (Humbleness i.e. the control of senses and eradication of passions as well as the holding of humbleness towards the Triple-Jeweled personalities); 3. Vaiyavritti (Rendering of service to saint by means of medicines, preaching etc., when they are overwhelmed by disease, Parishahas/Hardships and perversities); 4. Svadhyaya (Study); 5. Vyutsarg (Relinquishment of external and internal possessions); and 6. Dhyan (Meditation) (1)

(14) Endurance of Hardships (Parishah);

A monk has got to endure Parishahas (afflictions/hardships). Those afflictions that are to be endured for the shedding off of kama are termed Parishahas. The uttaradhyayan tells us that “A monk must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order not to be vanquished by them (Parishahas) when he lives the life of wandering mendicant”. The Parishahas (afflictions) are 22 in number; namely (1) Hunger, (2) Thirst, (3) Cold, (4) Heat (5) Insect-bite, (6) Nudity, (7) Enuii, (8) Woman, (9) Walking, (10) Sitting, (11) Sleeping place, (12) Abuse, (13) Attack, (14) Begging, (15) Non-obtainment, (16) Disease, (17) Pricking of grass, (18) Dirt, (19) Respect, (20) Conceit of knowledge, (21) Lack of knowledge and (22) Slack-belief.

Parishahas (hardships) are not austerities; they are different from them. The difference in the two consists in the fact that the former occur against the will of the monk, who endures them or rather turns them to good account by contemplating them to be the means for spiritual conquest; while the latter are in accordance with the will of the monk to have the spiritual triumph. Secondly, most of the Parishahas may be the creations of vicious men of cruel nature and jealous gods, viewed from the common man’s point of view. But austerities re, the enunciations and resolutions of the aspirants of salvation. Parishas have enduring value and austerities have pursuing value.

(15) Meditation (Dhyan)

Is the culmination point of all the disciplinary observances and rules of conduct. It is indispensable, integral constituent of Right conduct and is directly related to the actualization of divine potentialities. Dhyan (meditation) represents the concentration of mind, on a particular object, which causes concentration is possible only for an Antrarmuharta (Period of 48 minutes) to the maximum and that too in the case of such souls, as are possessing bodies of the best order. The object of concentration may be profane or holy in character. The former, which causes the inflow of inauspicious (Ashubha) Karma, is designated as inauspicious (Aprasasta) concentration, while the latter, which is causes prevention and shedding off of karmas is called auspicious concentration (Prasasta).

The Aprasasta-dhyan (inauspicious-concentrations) include Arta (Painful) and “Roudra” (wicked) dhyan. The Arta-dhyan, with its four fold classification (i.e. Anista-Samyoga), Ista-Viyoga, Vedana-Janita and Nidan-Janita) occurs in the perverted, spiritually converted and partially-disciplined personalities. The first concerns itself with the fact of one’s being constantly occupied with the anxiety of overthrowing the associated undesirable objects, which are either heard or perceived or which occur in mind owing to previous impressions, we have the Anista-Samyoga ja Type of Dhyan. The parting with the agreeable objects may also cause discomposure of mind. To be overwhelmed by anxiety for restoring the loss is alled Ista-Viyogaja Arta-dhyan. Vedna Janita Arta-dhyan consists of the constant occupation of mind to remove the distressing state on mind, resulting from the diseased condition of the body; whereas Nidan-janit Arta-dhyan consists of yearning for agreeable pleasures and contriving to defeat and slander the enemy or making up one’s mind for and dwelling upon the getting of objects of sensual pleasures. Even the saints associated with Pramad sometimes get influenced by the above types, except the fourth.

(1) Himsa-nandi (2) Mrisa-nandi (3) Chourya-nandi and (4) Visaya-nandi. The first Himsa-nandi (i.e. enjoying violence). means and includes taking delight in killing living beings, in being felicitous in hearing. seeing and reviving the oppression caused to sentient-beings, seeking ill of others, being envious of other man’s prosperity and merits, collecting implements of violence, showing kindness to cruel persons, being revengeful, and whishing defeat and victory in wars. The second-Mrisanandi (taking delight in falsehood) Roudradhyan means and includes desiring the entanglement of the world in troubles by dint of propagating vicious doctrines, writing unhealthy literature, amassing wealth by taking recourse to deceit and trickery, showing faults in faultless persons etc. The Chourya-nandi Roudra-dhyan includes showing zeal in the act of thieving, and imparting education for theft etc. The last Visayanandi-Roudra-dhyan means and includes all the endeavours, one does to guard the paraphernalia and pleasures of the senses, of the auspicious-concentrations, Dharma-dhyan (Righteous concentrations) is also of four kinds: (1) Ajna-Vichaya (2) Apaya-Vichaya (3) Vipaka-Vichaya and (4) Samsthan-Vichaya.


When the aspirant finds no one to preach, lacks subtle wit, is obstructed by the fruition of Karmas, is encountered with subtleness of objects and experiences, the deficiency of evidence in upholding and vindication any doctrine, he adheres to the exposition of Arihantas, as he believes that Arihants can not misrepresent things. In such cases, the aspirant is said to have adopted Ajna-Vichaya Dharma-dhyan.


In Apaya-Vichaya Dharma-dhyan, the aspirant ponders over the adequate ways and means of emancipating the souls from the worldly sufferings caused by wrong belief, the ladder of spiritual welfare. If Apaya-Vichaya establishes oneself in truth, Apaya-Vichaya lays stress on the means of realizing the essential nature of truth.


Dharma-dhyan implies the reflection on the effects, which Karmas produce on the diverse empirical souls.


The Samstan-Vichaya-dharma-dhyan, implies the reflection on the nature and form of three universe. It impresses upuon the mind of the saint about the vastness of the universe and the diversity of its constituents.


Dharma-dhyan prepares a suitable ground, in favour of the yogi, for ascending the loftiest spiritual heights. The Yogi/ascetics has achieved Self-mastery to the full and has developed a unique taste for the accomplishment of that something which is unique. Only those yogis/ascetics, who possess bodies of the best order (Vajra-Vrisabha, Narach etc.) can have Shukla-dhyan. It is of four types (1) Prathakatva-Vitarka-Vichar (2) Ekatva-Vitaraka-Vicara (3) Sukshma-Kriya-Pratipatin and (4) Vyuparata Kriyavartin. The first two occur upto the twlevth Gunasthan with the help of conceptual thinking based on scriptural knowledge; and the last two Crown the omniscient (Kevali) where conceptual ability of the mind abates to the last.

The first type is associated with Prithktva (Manyness), Vitarka (scriptural knowledge) and Vichara (transition from one aspect of entity to another; for example substance to modifications and Vice-Versa. In the second type, Vichara is absent and consequently one-ness displcas many-ness. The mind shortens its field of concentration to the effect that the Yogi/ascetic meditates upon substance, an atom or a modification of a substance with the assistance of only one kind of Yoga on types of obscuring (Ghatia) karmas and consequently experiences infinite intuition, knowledge, bliss and energy.

The omniscient occupies himself with third type of ShuklaDhyan when an Antarmuhurta remains in Final emancipation. After establishing himself in gross bodily activity, he fixes himself in the activity of mind and speech and makes the gross bodily activity subtle. Afterwards mental and vocal activities are stopped and only subtle activities of the body is left. In the last type of Dhyan, even the subtle activity of the body is stopped. The souls becomes devoid of mental, vocal and physical vibrations and immediately after the time taken to pronounce five syllables, it attains disembodied liberation. (1)

16. Thought Colours (Leshya) :-

The term ‘Leshya’ indicates the closely-knit pattern, resulting from the mingling of passion and action. Activity coloured by passions is described as ‘Leshya’. Passions in general excite the senses to indulge themselves in sensuous objects. They work to such as extent that when pleasant things depart and unpleasant ones come closer, one is put to severe anxiety and it results in the loss of mental equanimity. The result of emotional disturbance (which is itself symptomatic of the loss of mental equanimity) is that the Jiva gets established in the Karmic cycle more and more. The Jain theory of emotions is quite consistent with their ethical theory, in so far as the latter contains in it the definite suggestion, that sensory and mental excitations are ultimately hindrances to man’s enjoying purity of bliss and fullness of existence. (1)

The ‘Leshyas’ (Thought-Colours) are six in number-krishna, Nila, Kapot, Pila, Padma inauspicious and the last three as auspicious ‘Leshyas’. The first three are the consequence of Arta (painful concentration of mind), and Roudra-dhyanas (wicked concentration of mind); and the last three, those of Dharma and Shukla Dayanas. One who does not give up enimity and who is wrathful, Pugnacious, Villain and bereft of piety and compassion is possessed by Krishna Leshya (Black thought colour). One who is slow, conceited, deceitful, indolent, mysterious, Covetous, expert in swindling, extremely sleepy, without common sense and sagacity and extremely eager for sense-objects is controlled by Nila Leshya (Blue thought colour). To be angry with others, to be full of sorrow and fear, to be envious and slanderous, to be little and these others, to be pleased with implorers, to be ignorant of one’s loss and gain, to extol oneself, to give wealth to flatterers, not to trust others and not to recognize duty and not duty all these are the characteristic of man possessed by Kapot Leshya (Grey though colour). (1)

The auspicious Lesya (thought colours) are the result of Dharma-dhyan and Sukla-dhyan, which enforce banishment of all the inimical elements, robbing the soul of the Legitimate disposition and proper conduct for spiritual advancement. As a consequence, the self gains strength to dive deep into the ordinarily unfathomable depths of the mysterious self.

According to Gomnat Sara “(Jivakand)” Right belief is acquired by the self, which is in any one of the four conditions of existence, is destined to liberation, is possessing mind, is fully developed, is awake, and is having purity, determinate knowledge and auspicious Leshya.

(17) In this connection, a note on Anuprekashas i.e. Anuchintana, or repeated reflections of a monk, seems to be necessary Swami Kartikeya, defines Anuprekshas as the noble principles leading upward. These reflections (anuprekshas) have been contemplated to sub-serve the noble cause of spiritual progress, to engender detachment and to lead the aspirant from the domain of Passion to that of dispassion. These Anuprekshas are 12 in number (1) Incentive of Perplex Flux or transtoriness of things (anitya); (2) of inescapability from death (asarana); (3) of transmigration (Samsara); (4) of loneliness (Skatva); (5) of metaphysical distinction constitution of the Universe (Loka); (6) of the bodily impurity (asudhi); (7) for the right path (Bodhi-Durlabh); (8) of the difficulty of attaining the between Self and Non-self (anyatva); (9) of the stoppage of the inflow of Karma (Samvara); (11) of shedding of Karmas (Nirjana); and (12) of the correctly preached Dharma (dharma-svakhyatatva). The first line Anuprekshas or reflections are negative while the last three are positive ones. These twelve reflections made repeatedly provide great incentives to spiritual life and keep the monk in high spirits. According to Mulachara, these Bhavanas or Anuprekshas bring about detachment, and he who identifies himself with them, attains liberation as a result of the destruction of Karmic bondage.

(18) Gunasthana :- (Stages of spiritual development)

Jain Philosphy maintains that the spiritual perfection can be attained by an aspirant gradually i.e. step by step. It refers to fourteen stages through which the purity of the soul-purity of existence and consciousness is experienced. These stages (or steps) are termed as “States of Virtues” (Gunastnan). These states of virtues indicate the various steps through which “Jiva” (Soul) ascends the ladder of spiritual emanicaption and reaches the summit of perfection. Right conduct i.e. the three jewels. Every soul has the potentiality to “get at” all these three jems. This potentiality is actualized through the individual’s own initiative and efforts.

The first four states of virtue namely (“Mithyadristi”, “Sasadan-Samyagdristi”, “Misra” and “Avirat Samyagdristi”) are much concerned with the development of Right-faith. The first one is the state of wrong faith or wrong-belief; the second is the stage, where the soul slightly tastes Right-belief. This stage is normally considered nnot as an evolution from the first stage, but as a result of a fall from some higher stage. The third stage represents the Oscillating experience of the individual between Right Faith and wrong faith. The fourth is the stage, wherein there is definite indication that right and knowledge and conduct are atleast conceptually visualized and there is every possibility of the individual putting his theory of truth and conduct into practice.

The stages 5th, 6th and 7th (namely Desha-Virat Samyag-dristi”, :Pramatta-Samyat” and “Apramatta Samyat”) refer to the struggles, that go on between the individuals will, which tries to conquer the sensual desires and the sense organs, which constantly try to pull the down. The 8th stage (“Nivratta-Badar-Sampray”) is characterized by the soul acquiring a rare physical force, which can be made use of, in the subjugation and eradication of Karmas.

The 9th and 10th stages namely “Anivritta-Badar-Samparay” and Sukshma-Samparay” – represents the stages of spiritual warfare where the individual fights, with passions, emotions and impulses in the 11th stage “Upashant Moha” the danger of recurrence of the passions and emotions remain. The 12th stage, (“Sukshma-Kasaya-Vitarag-Chhadmastha) represents almost the end of spiritual Journey and here the annihilation of Karmic influence is effectively achieved. In this stage, the four obscuring Karmas (Jnana Varniya, Darshana Varniya Antaray and Mohaniya) are fully annihilated with the result that the moment an individual reaches the 13th stage (“SayogaKevali”) he attains omni-science and becomes a “Kevali”. Now the individual becomes victorious “Jina” One who has annihilated his enemies i.e. Karmas and is called “Arihant”. The individual still remains alive because his non-obscuring karmas namely those of Ayu (age) Nama (Body making), Gotra (Family) and Vedaniya (Feeling) remain to get exhausted. After their exhaustion, in the last, the 14th stage (named “Ayoga-Kevali”), the individual leaves the mundane world and becomes a “Siddha”. He realizes the truth in its completeness and his soul becomes pure, perfect and free from the shackles of birth and death (1)

(19) Salekhna : Festival of death.

According to Jain-Philosphy, there are five kinds of Deaths:-

(1) Pandit-Pandit marana – (literally wise-wise death or Master’s death);

(2) Pandit-Marana (Wise-man’s death);

(3) Bal-Pandit-marana (child-wise-man’s death);

(4) Bal-maran (Child’s death) and

(5) Bal-Bal-marana (Child-child or fool’s death).

The first Pandit-Pandit marana (the master’s death) is conquest of death; as it causes dissociation or separation of spirit from matter, and awards (Nirvana-as in the case of a Tirthankar. The Pandit-marana (wise man’s death) is the death of a saint, who dies in a tranquil state, neither grieving of lamenting the approach of his end, nor desiring it to be hastened. He faces death as if he were celebrating a festival; because he knows that the soul is immortal and in case he dies a Pandit-marana he is sure to get higher grade of life. The Bal-Pandit marana is the death of the self-controlled partly-vowful house-holder, whose interior is illuminated with Right Faith. The Bal-marana form of death is the death of uncontrolled Right believer; whereas the Bal-bal marana form of death is the death of one, who is a wrong-believer out and out.

Sailekhana implies the enervation of external body and internal passions in legitimate way, by the gradual removal of the causes of their nourishment, so that one may renounce the present body with a view to having a bodily modification. To be more clear, the abandonment of the body frame to be confronted with the uneschewable calamity, famine, Senility and disease, for the sustenance of spiritual practices has been regarded as Sallekhna.

This is not yielding to Death but a way of meeting the challenge of death-bravely, undauntedly and adequately. (1) In this connection, the “Bhagwati-Aradhana” (by St. Shivkoti), points out :-

“Bhakta Pratyakhyan marana (Sallekhna) is not proper for him; who has no fear of starvation from a great famine, who is not afflicted by an incurable disease, and who is not faced by any sudden cause of death. Whosoever desires to put an end to his life, while still able, with his body, to observe the rules of dharma, and of the order properly, he falls from the true Path:

The Sraman or the Sravak, adopting Sallekhna, diminishes his food gradually, until it is substituted by Kanji and further for water merely. In the last, he fasts fully and in salutation of five Paragons/supreme beings till the soul calmly leaves the body.

Sallekhna is characterized by the utmost degree of mental clarity and, urged by the pious ambition to control one’s destiny and through it, death itself. “Those who adopt the Sallekhna-Vow, immediately become self-composed and self centered; they cease to be agitated by personal consideration and sufferings, and rise above the cravings and longings of the world. The result of the terribly resolute frame of mind implied in the Sallekhna-Vow on the departing soul, is simply wonderful and immediately raises its rhythm, lifting it out of the slough of despondency and negativity.

The man, who wanders or losses about hither and thither, weeping.

and crying in the closing moments of life, and spends the little time at his disposal in making vain efforts to avoid the unavoidable, is nowhere compared with him, who realizing the hopelessness of the endeavour to save his life-earnestly applies himself to control his destiny. The result is that while the latter attains to Deva-birth in the highest heavens, the former only finds himself in the painful and inevitable circumstances and surroundings. (1)