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(1) Nine categories: Seven elements:-

All the philosophical and ethical aspects of Jainis are found in nine categories/essential objects/padarthas inclusive of seven elements:

1. Jiva (soul, (2) ajiva (non soul) (3) Asrva (influx of karmas in to the soul) (4) papa (vice/sins/inauspicious karmas) (5) punya (virtues/meritorious karmas/auspicious karmas) (6) bandh (association / bondage of karmas with soul) (7) Samvara (stoppage/checking the influx of karmas) (8) Nirjara (shedding or removal of karmas from soul) and (9) Moksha (liberation/emancipation/salvation of soul from karmic bondage). Read More...