Jain - An Introduction

The Meaning of Jainism

Jainism is the religion preached by the ‘Jineshwars.’ Those who have conquered love, hate, sensual desire, and such other passions, or those who have vanquished the eight *Karmas are Jins and those who are the best of them are the Jineshwars. Frequently they are also called वीतराग i.e are the those who are free from all passions , अरहंत i.e. those who are revered by Indra and others,सर्वग्यi.e. Omniscient,परमेष्ठी those who have occupied the highest place and शास्ता i.e. those who show the right path. There are hundreds of other names which also indicate their nature. The present Jains of India are divided into three sections viz, the Digambars, the Shwetambars and the Dhundias.

The Three Sects Of Jains Compared

There is no difference between these sections as regards their principles. They all believe in the Seven principles the twenty-four. Tirthankars, the principle of non-killing, and Right Bellief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct. The difference comes in only with reference to image-worship, the nature of ascetics, and some other minor points. The images worshipped by the DIGAMBERS are naked and they are not adorned with any ornaments or glass-made eyes. The SHWETAMBER images differ in all these points, while the DHUNDIAS would accept no images whatever. At present, I am going to speak principally about the Digambars; yet there is very little in the following that is contary to the doctrines of the other sections.

The Seven Principal

There are Seven Principles of Jain religion, namely, (1) Jeeva or Life (2)Ajeeva or matter (3) Asrava or the path of Karma (4) Bandha or the bondage of Karma (5) Sanvar or the prevention of Asrava, (6) Nirjara or the partial destruction of Karma and (7) Moksha or Total Delieverance. The essence of a thing is its principle (Tatva).

The Importance of Moksha

The principle of Moksha is the highest of these. It is defined as the “Freedom of a Soul from every Karma”. The happiness of even a Chakarvarti or Emperor, nay, even the glory of Indra in the heaven is perishable and consequently painful. Death is the fate of all of these and the thought of that fate eclipses all the worldly pleasure. The succession of birth and deaths is a mighty source of affection and as long as one is subject to it, there is no peace for him. The pleasure of the senses are all transient and painful in result and hence they are called Shadows of Happiness. True happiness must be free from every possibility of pain even in the future.. This can only be found in Moksha and hence its importance. The way to the Moksha is the main object of every Jain work. To whom is the Moksha is the main object of every Jain work. To whom is the Deliverance possible? This question is answered by saying that only animate beings can attain that higest of status and we have, therefore, to come to Jeeva which is defined as the sentient or knowing or animate being. This sentence is its essence.

The Classification explained

It is divided according to the divisions of knowledge to which it attains. Sentence is divided into Knowledge (Gyan) Faith (Darshan), etc. But it is impossible for the Jeeva to walk on upon the path of Total Delieverance as long as it is associated with another principle, the Ajeeva or matter. This Ajeeva is in all respects the opposite of Jeeva. The association of these two is never complete, i.e. their separation is alwayspotential . Gold may be mixed with any other metal but it can be separated at any time. Hence even when together, the two are possessed of their peculiar virtues. Matter or Ajeeva is divided in Pudgal, Dharam, Adharam, Akash and Kal. A Pudgal is either a material or its bundle. Dharam helps the Jeeva associated with Pudgal to progress, just as water helps on the movements of a fish. Adharma entices a man from the true path just as the shadow of a tree does to a man traveling in the hot sun. Akash is the space in which all thing exist. Kal is that through which things grow new and alter.

The Asravas

Asrava is the third principle. It is defined as “what forms the inlet for auspicious and ominous Karmas.” These inlets are opened in the case of the soul when it feels love or hatered for whatever it sees or knows through its seeing or knowing power. (Gyan or Darshan) just as water is let into the boat through its holes. When the soul feels its love or hatered rightly, ths Asrava is an “auspicious (Shubha) Asrava” and when wrongly, it is “ominous(Ashubha) Asrava”. The soul is either in an “auspicious” or “inauspicious” or “pure” state. The first is superior to the second; but it is not capable pf carrying ths soul to Moksha as it is tainted with passions. Which being of an auspicious nature may at the most lead to the heavens in after life or the eminence of a Chakravarti (Emperor) in this life. The ominous Asrava inflicts the pain of hells, beastly life and human poverty, diseases, separation, ugliness, etc. The “Pure” temper is the one that tends to lasting welfare and leads to Moksha, It is devoid of any passions at all.

The Eight Karmas

The Karma is primarily divided into eight classes:[1] The Gyana-uarniya [2] The Darshana-varniya [3] The Mohaniya [4] The Vedaniya [5] The Ayu [6] The Nam [7] The Gotra [8] The Antraya. Corresponding to these there are different Asravas. For instance to have no taste for learning, to impede the propress of knowledge, to conceal wisdom, to be jealous of others’ learning- all these produce the Asravas of the Gyan-varniya Karma. By imputing untrue faults to the Omnisicent Lord or the Gospel of the Jins or the School of Jain ascetics, the soul incurs the Asravas of the Darshana-varniya Karmas. The violent nature of passions leads to the Asravas of the Charitra – mohaniya Karmas. To make new beginnings and to keep up too big an establishment produce the Asravas of birth in hell. Deceptive and seductive conduct leads to Asravas of birth in beastly class. Small beginnings and limited establishment endow a soul with human life. Self – control with a view to get something , partial self-control,enjoyment without addiction and penance without right knowledge lead to birth in heaven. Simple faith of the right kind gives the Asravas of only Kalpvasi gods and not of the Bhavan, Vyantar and Jyotis and to guide for actions of mind, speeds and body on a wrong path and to be overtalkative, gives rise to the Asravas of the Karma of inauspicious name. On the contary, guile-less native and moderate talk gives the Asravas of auspicious name. The Asravas of the name of Teerthankar are the result of pure faith, complete modesty, faultless conduct, unremitting love of learning, indifference to worldly life, charity and penance to the best of one’s ability reverence for ascetics, assistance to the needy, reliance upon the teaching of Arhats, Acharyas and the well-read unfailing observance of the sixfold daily duties like Samayik and Prethraman, promotion of the cause of religion by self-sacrifice and spade of knowledge & sympathy with the pious.The Asravas of the low Gotra Karma are the result of censuring others, praising one self, concealing the merits of others and preventing to have what one really has not. Conduct opposite to it leads to higher Gotra Karma. Obstruction to good cause brings on the Asravas of Antaraya. The cause of the Asravas of the eight kinds of Karmas will be known from this.

The Fourfold bondage

Now the principle of Bandh on bandage. It is defined as the mutual entrance, into each other’s spheres, of the soul and the Karma. When the soul is attached by the passions like anger and love, it takes on the Pudgal (material) particles fit for the bondage of the Karmas, just as a heated iron-ball takes up water-particles in which it is immersed. This is the bondage of the Karmas, The bondage is fourfolding (1) Prakrati Bandh (2) Sthiti Bandh (3) Aubhag Bandh and (4) Pradesh Bandh. There are eight primary and hundred and forty-eight secondary Prakritis or qualities of the Karmas as a thing has the quality of being sour, salty and so on. One obstructs knowledge another obstructs intuition (insight), another confused truth and falsehood, another leads to wrong path, another causes the illusion of pleasure and pain and so on. The primary Prakritis correspond to each of the eight Karmas. That which obstructs knowledge is the Gyanavarniya Prakriti; that which obstructs insight, is the Darshanavarniya Prakriti; that which produces the illusion of pleasure and pain is the Vedaniya Prakriti; that which makes the mind suspicious about the true good and creates the passions is the Mohaniya Prakriti; that which gives rebirth is the Ayu prakriti; that which gives name is the Nam; that which causes the differences like the lower and the higher is the Gotra prakriti and that which comes in the way of our charity, enjoyment etc. is the Antaraya prakriti. The secondary prakriti, here omitted for brevity, should be referred to in the VIIth. Chap. Of the commentary of the ATTVARTH SUTRA. The staying of these bandhas of the prakritis for a definite period, is the Sthitt Bandh. The Anubhag Bandh is the undergoing of the result of the Karmas in that period. The detailed association of the numberless spaces of the Karmas according to their names, with all the space of the soul, is called the Pradesh Bandh.

Modes of the Karmas

The Vedant speaks of the bondage of Karma as being Sanchit Karyuman and Prarabdh. In the same way Jainism divided into Satta, Bandha and Udaya. The first means the previous bondage which is yet to be exhausted. Bandh is the new accuision of Karma and Udaya is the beginning of the work of old Karmas.

The Sanvar Principle

Now the principle of Sanvar which means the prevention of Asravas described before. This Sanvar is the stopping of the entrance of the Karma into the soul just like stopping the holes in a boat to prevent water from coming in. This can be done by observing the three Gupties;twenty two Parishaha Jayas, the five Charitras and the twelve Tapas.

The Gupties

The three Gupties are (1) fixing the mind (2) keeping silent and (3) stopping the movements of the body. As they cannot be observed at all the times.

The Samitis

the five Samitis are prescribed for observance. (1) The Bhasha Samiti consists in being careful to speak what is true, useful and end earing. (3) The Eshana Samiti is taking care not to eat what is forbidden, what might be burdensome and troublesome to others and what might give rise to idleness inebriation and disease. To be careful not to give pain to any life in the taking up or keeping down of the Pinchhi, etc. ( of the ascetics]] ) is called the Adan Nikshepan Samiti. The last Usages Samiti is the care to be taken to harm none in answering calls of nature. These five Samitis lead to Sanvar.

The ten Dharmas or duties

The ten Dharmas causing the same are ( Forgiveness (2) Humility (3) Fraudlessness (4) Truthfulness (5) Indifference towards the wealth and poverty or others. (6) Subduing the mind and the senses. (7)Tapas of prevention of the desires (8) Charity towards deserving object (9) Being without any thing with oneself and (10) Celebacy The Anuprekshas which also cause Sanvar, twelve in number are as follows :-

The Twelve Anuprekshas

[1] The Anitya Anupreksha is meditation over the transience of one’s body, wife, children and wealth. [2] The Asaravas is the meditation over the ability of the Dharma alone to make one free from worldly sufferings and the cycle of births and deaths. [3] The thought that this cycle of births and deaths is not ended although one is from life of beasts and so on, is called the Samvar Anupreksha. [4] To think that one alone has to bear all the results of one’s actions, is the Ekatva Anupreksha. To think that the soul is apart from the body called one’s own by illusion, is the Anyatva Anupreksha. [6] To always remember that the body, composed of the sevenfold segment, is so dirty that souls become themselves dirty by its contact and that it can never become pure by any amount of bathing, is the Ashauch Anupreksha. [7] The thought of the Asravas being the cause of the Pains of life, is the Asrav- anupreksha. [8] The Sanvar-anupresha is thinking over the means of preventing Asravas. [9] The Nirjar- anupreksha is thinking over the actions that will lead to freedom from bondage [10] To think that the universe was created by none is the Lokanupreksha. [11] The Bodhi Durlabhh is the thought that the true knowledge of the soul and its true good, is very difficult to obtain and that one has not attained it in long ages in which one was again and again born and dead. [12] To think that the religion of non-killing is prescribed by the Jineshvars who are full of truth, forgiveness, etc. ; that one is moving constantly into the Sansar owing to one’s ignorance of this and that its observance would easily lead to the Moksha as well as the position of the Indra and the Chakravarti, is the last Anupreksha called the Dharma Anupreksha All these cause Sanvar.

The Parishahas

Now the enduring of the twenty-two Parishahas is also a cause of Sanvar. The Parishahas are :- (1) Hunger (2) Thirst (3) Cold (4) Heat (5) The insect-bites (6) Nakedness (7) Indifference (8) Woman (9) Action (10) Sitting (11) Bedding (12) Crying (13) Killing (14) Begging (15) Loss (16) Disease (17) Touch of grass (18) Dirt (19) Modes of hospitality (20) Knowledge (21) Ignorance (22) Want of faith. These parishahas cause Sanvar it they are suffered asoccasions arise.

The Five elements of conduct

The five fold conduct is also a cause of Sanvar. Its first element is Samayika which means the performance of the six necessary duties to be hereafter enumerated, e.g. the application of the mind to religious meditation or its concentration by occupying a sitting or standing posture for a fixed period in the morning, at midday, in the evening and at midnight. The second is Chhedopasthapan which consists of taking some penance or re-entering the ascetic life, on accounts of some fault of the man. Third is Parthar Vishudhi which means the avoidance of any injury while moving about. Sukshm Samparaya is the endeavour to root out the residue of passions after its tumult has subsided. The fifth consists in observing the rules of highest character.

The Tapas

The Tapas – The twelve kinds of Tapas or “ the checks to the career of desires,” are enumerated in the last foot-note. We have thus seen what are the factors of the principle of Sanvar.

The Principle of Nirjara

Now comes Nirjara which is defined as the partial destruction of the Karmas. One kind of it is the destruction of the Karmas by their being suffered out and another kind is its bringing to maturity by some means before its ordinary period. Partial destruction here means that some of the Karmas are yet to run their course.


Then comes Moksha which is defined as “freedom from every Karma.” In this state, material body disappears and only the soul consisting of infinite wisdom and insight remains. We have thus treated of the Seven Principles.” Now I take up the third part of my lecture.

The Three Jewels

Every Jain work asserts that true insight, true knowledge and right conduct are the path ;of Deliverance. These are the Three Jewels.

True insight

It is faith in the seven principles explained before. It is also defined as faith in the God who is faultless, Omniscient and author of the Scriptures ; in those scriptures that are dictated by such Gods that are consistent with everything, that expound the principles and that refute the false doctrines ; and in those Teachers who have abandoned sensual enjoyments, any new work or unnecessarily equipment of worldly existence and who are absorbed in the acquisition of wisdom, concentration and penance.

True knowledge

It is such as depicts things as they are, and as is based on faith without doubt or perversity.

Right conduct

It is a man’s observing in action what he knows and believes through True Faith and knowledge. This conduct is either complete or incomplete according as a man is an ascetic or a layman. I shall take up the latter first.

A Shravaka Defined

A man is not a Shravaka ( a Jain layman ) if he only knows and believes rightly and does not yet begin living by that belief or knowledge, which alone entitles him to that position. A Shravaka is also called a Desh Vriti, i.e. one who observes the vows [ rules of conduct ] only partially. He has eleven stages through which he is to rise up.

The Darshan Stage

The first is the Darshan Stage. Here a man must have his faith free from the five and twenty faults and must be free from the seven vices, namely. (1) Gambling (2) Flesh-eating (3) Drinking (4) Debauchery (5) Hunting (6) Theft (7) Defiling other men’s wives.

The Vrita Stage

The second is the Vrita Stage. Here the five Anu, the three Gun and the four Shiksha Vritas or vows have to be observed without any defects. The first Anu Vrita consists of abandoning intention killing generally. A man observing it should not intentionally kill or make any one else kill any life higher than the One-Sense life. It entails avoidance of five faults connected with it, which are [1] not cutting a limb of an animal. [2] binding it up [3] beating it with sticks, etc. [4] working it beyond its capacity and [5] under-feeding it.

The Satyanu Vrita

The second Anuvrita is Truthfulness in a general sense.With it are connected five faults to be avoided by one who keep it. They are, [1] to speak ill of others [2] to divulge any one’s secret [3] to censure others [4] to fabricate false writings and [5] to doctor accounts.

The Achaurya Anuvrita

The third Anuvrita is general abstinence from stealing. To take without its owner’s permission what is kept, lying, forgotten or not one’s own, is general stealing. The five faults of the vow are (1) to make some one else steal (2) to buy stolen property (3) to disobey law (4) to make false measures. & (5) to adulterate commodities for sale.

The Brahmacharya

The fourth is the Abonding of sexual relation with any but one’s own wife. In observing it, too, five faults have to be guarded against, namely (1) to bring about other’s marriages (2) to relish naked sexually (3) to indulge indecent talk (4) to be too fond of sensuality and (5) to frequent the houses of prostitutes. The fifth is the circumscription of worldly equipment. It means that a man should make up his mind as to what are his needs and then limit his ambition there and that he should live within his means. The five faults to be avoided here are (1) to undertake unnecessary enterprise (2) to lay by too much (3) to admire with satisfaction other men’s wealth (4)to be coverous and (5) to bear too much burden. These five vows observed without faults and the abandonment of intoxicants, animal food and honey, make up the eight primary qualities of a lay man. They are essential to make him a Shravak. The faults connected with each of the vows do not constitute, if not observed non-observance of the vows themselves, but only they sully the complete purity of a man’s character.

The Gun Vritas

The three Gun Vritas that follows are [1] Dig [2] Anarth Dand and [3] Bhogopabhoga. The first is a vow not to go beyond a certain distance in any of the ten directions. Its “faults” are – [1] going higher [2] lower [3] more obliquel than is vowed [4] increasing the limits once settled upon and [5] forgetting the limits. The second is taking care not commit causeless sins even withing the limits, e.g. not doing such things as preaching wrong conduct without one’s own concern, giving others tools of life-killing, brooding over evil things, hearing or reading vicious songs or stories, and making idle tricks. Its “faults” are [1] speaking indecently, [2] drawing indecent pictures [3] talking excessively [4] increasing the furniture of enjoyment and [5] undertaking work without realizing its extent. The avoidance of these “faults” makes the vow of Anarth Dand complete. The third vow consists of measuring the objects of Bhog (enjoyment once only) like food, water, etc. and of Upbhog (enjoyment over again of one and the same thing) such as clothes, ornaments houses, etc. and also it consists in not eating roots of trees, onions, butter, flowers of Nim trees, the ketaki flowers and such things as do not hurt one’s health. The faults of this vows are [1] liking the objects of enjoyment [2] entertaining the memory of past pleasures [3] covering the objects of pleasure [4] thirsting for the objects of enjoyment and [5] imagining enjoyment where there is none. These three are called Gun Vritaa as they raise the Anu (small) vritas to Maha (great) vritas, ( as regards the limits excluded etc.)

The four Shiksha vows are Deshavakaashiksha. (2)Samayika (3) Proshodhopavas and (4) Dana.The first aims at converting the Anu vows into Mahavritas by always tending to narrow the limits of the former vows. Its observation entails avoidance of five faults which are (1) sending men beyond the limits (2) sending verbal messages beyond the limits (3) ordering things from beyond the limits (4) making signs by physical movements and (5) by movements of outward objects.


The second Samayika. It consists in a man’s fixing a certain time in morning, noon and evening and spending that time in devotion, reading the scriptures and concentration sitting or standing in some lonely place. At this a man should confess and repent all the evil done, spoken or thought of. This is called Pratikarman, which is a part of Samayika. A resolution not to commit the same mistake over again, is called Pratyakhyan, which also is included in Samayika It is a great penance and it purifies the mind. To these praising the greatness of the God, making three salutations to each of the four directions and giving up desires over the body are added to make up the “six necessities.” The five faults to be avoided here are [1] non-fixing of the body [2] the mind and [3] the tongue to one purpose, [4] non-reverence towards the Samayika and [5] forgetting the lessons or the rites of the Samayika. The avoidance of these makes the Samayika faultless.


The third Shiksha Vrita is Prashadhopavas. A man observing it has to keep a complete or partial fast on the prescribed i.e. every eighth day of Hindu fortnight. All the day is to be spent in a lonely place in reading scriptures or meditating over asceticism. The best form of the vow is in observing it for the whole day prescribed , in addition to the preceeding and following twelve hours. To be faultless, its observance must avoid (1) spreading the bed (2) observing the(3) taking up necessary tools without examination and cleaning of the ground, (4) non-reverence for the rite and (5) forgetting it.

Dan or Charity

The last vow is Dan or Vayyavritya, also called Athithi Sanvibhag. It consists of giving food, medicine safety and knowledge to needy men. If the Dan leads to or encourages laziness, grossness, madness, disease or sin, it is no Dan at all. So one must be very careful in giving in charity. The five faults to be avoided here are (1) giving food kept in an objectionable pot (20 concealed in it (3) giving it through others (4) giving it out of envy and (5) not giving it in time. A man who observes these twelve vows without faults and the three Shalyas, is a man in the second stage.

The Shalyas or Darts

The three Shalyas are (1)Maya (illusion) (2) Mithyatva (false-hood) and (3) Nidon (covetousness). The first is the pang of fraud, the second is the pang of false faith and the third is the pang of covering certain things. A layman who observes the vows must be unaffected by these darts.

Sanllekhana or peaceful death

Such a man has to observe in the last Sanllekhana at the time. Of dying. He should give up all love for his wife, children and friends and hatred towards his enextended to all. The idea of houses, etc, being one’s own should be thrown aside. The dues should be paid up. The remaining estate should be given to children, wife, servants and in charities. The actions of the closing life should be reviewed. Evils should be repented. There should be no pain, no fear, no anxiety, but attention should be fixed on scriptures being read at the time. Food should be diminished gradually until it should be substituted for Kanji and further for water merely. Lastly strict fasting should be kept. The five salutations, namely, to the Arhats, the Sidhas, the Acharayas, the Upadhyayas and the Stages should be recited till the soul calmly leaves the body. This vow is to be observed only when a man feels certain that death is near at hand. The faults to be avoided in the complete observance of this vow are (1) a desire for prolonging the days of life, (2) or for hastening death, (3) fearing death and its pain (4) remembering friends & relations and (5) wishing for certain fruits of the [meritorious] acts done. A man who dies a Sanllekhana death, surely reaches the heavens or attains the Moksha.

The Samayika Stage

Then comes the third, the Samayika stage. It consists in the faultless keeping of the Samayika vow. The fourth stage is named after and consists in the regular observance of the Proshadhopavas vow. The fifth, called the Sachitt-tyaga stage, is the one in which a man does not eat fruits, vegetables, roots, branches, seeds and flowers that are not dried or ripe or boiled. The sixth consists in adandoning the habit of eating, drinking, licking and chewing beetlenuts and pan from sunset to sunrise. The seventh stage requires complete celibacy and conquest of the sexual desire.

The next Stages summarized

The eighth is that stage of life in which engagements like commerce, agriculture, service, etc. are completelyabdndoned. The ninth stage is reached when a man gives up the ten external appendages such as wealth, corn, cattle, etc. and keeps the mind unruffled.

The Eight Karmas

The tenth stage requires a man to be free from interfering with and consenting to occupations, marriages, etc. The final stage of a layman is that in which he leaves home altogether, goes to some ascetic from whom he takes vows, lives by mendlcacy, dons a very small piece of cloth only practices Tapas all the times. A man rising to a higher stage must rise by each successive stage along the march and must keep all the practices of each stage below.


Tapas is twelvefold :- [1] Fasting [2] Eating less than a full meal [3] fixing dinners [4] omitting some Ras [ghee, lonely place [6] putting the body to exercise. This is external Tapas. The internal Tap is [1] Doing penance [2] keeping restraint [3] serving the Teachers [4] Reading the Shastras daily [5] indifference towards one’s own body and [6] concentration of mind.

The fifty three rites

The fifty three rites prescribed for a layman are the eight primary qualities, the twelve Tapas. One Samyabhava or equanimity, the eleven Stages, the four Danas, the habit of drinking water passed through cloth, giving up night-meals and the three jewels. They are all detailed before. The six daily duties of a man are, [1] worship, [2] business for livelihood by means of [a] the sword, [b] the pen, [c] the plough, [d] the scale [e] the tools of arts like carpentry, mechanics, drawing and [f] the rod of the herdsman. No one should be idle and burdensone to others. One who handles the sword has to perform six duties, viz :- self-protection, maintaining purity of heart, up-holding the royal family and treating his subjects and his sons alike and subduing his foes. [3] Charity, [4] Reading and thinking, [5] Self restraint; and [6] Penance.

The Fifth three ceremonies of the Mahapuran

I shall now briefly enumerate the fifty three ceremonies through which a man living in family life is to pass.

[1] Conception ceremony _ When a woman attains pubery, she and her husband should on the sixth day thereafter go to the temple, perform worship and at night should go together only for the sake of pregnancy.Cohabitationwithout Ritu, i.e. the time just following the monthly course, is prohibited.

[2] Propitation_ In the third month after conception, worship, music, etc. should be performed to keep the pregnant woman delightful.

[3] Super-propitation_ the above ceremonies should be performed in the fifth month, after conception.

[4] Dhriti Kriya_ means that worship should be performed, in the seventh month, for the sake of the child to be born.

[5] Moda Kriya_ consists in the writing of the primary letters on the body of the pregnant woman in the ninth month, etc.

[6] Birth ceremony_ It consists in worship, etc, at the birth of a child.

[7] Naming_ It is to be done on the twelvth day after birth with worship of the Gods, the Preceptors and the family priests.

[8] Bringing out the child from the delivery room in the second, third or the fourth month.

[9] Laying up the child on a bed.

[10] Feeding the child with boiled rice in the eighth month or so.

[11] First Anniversary to be performed with feasts, etc.

[12] Keshavaya, i. e. the ceremony of keeping hairs after shaving for the first time.

[13] Lipi Sankhyan_ means that the child in its fifth year should be taught to write Om at the hands of the priest.

[14] Thread ceremony_ This consists in giving the boy, now eight years old, the five Anu Vritas.

[15] Student-hood_ where in the boy should keep the vows, study religion and other subjects.

[16] Completion of the vows_ means that the boy should, after completing studies take up ascetictism if he likes or should be a house-holder, i.e. should take on the habiliments of a layman instead of a celebrate,should abandon intoxicants, flesh, honey, the five udumbars and the five sins beginning with killing, and should adopt one of the six ways of livelihood.

[17] Marriage_ When the man wishes to marry he should select with his parents consent a good girl from a proper family and marry her in the presence of fire. For a week after marriage, they should keep on celibacy whereon they should go together on some pilgrimage. After returning, the marriage thread on the wrist should be untied.Cohabitationis allowed once in a month just at the time of Ritu. Weaker persons should keep longer intervals.

[18] Varnlabh_ requires that the married persons after taking some property from their parents, should make a separate household.

[19] Kulcharya_ i.e. the six daily duties of a householder should be performed.

[21] Quietude to be got by assingning family-affairs to the care of the sons.

[22] Desertion of the house should come when a man is sure that the family would do without hirt.

[23] The Pre-asetic life, i.e. the life of the layman in the last stage, should be taken up.

[24] Jin Rupata consists in the throwing up of the clothes and taking on the life of an ascetic without any bondage.

[25] Concentrated Study should now begin when there should be no talk on any thing but study.

[26] Teerthankar Bhavana consists in studying the sixteen Bhavanas, the first of which is Darshan Vishudhi.

[27] The duties of a leading ascetic_Acharya_ should there be performed.

[28] Preaching and correcting the wrong going men.

[29] Becoming on Acharya.

[30] Handing over the place to a pupil and taking to lonely meditation.

[31] The attempt at total concentration.

[32] Total concentration.

[33] Attaining Indra’s birth after death.

[34] Accession to Indra’s throne.

[35] Giving of Vimans and Riddies to others.

[36] Enjoyment of Indra-ship.

[37] Abandoning the place.

[38] To be conceived to become a Teerthankar.

[39] The shower of Jewels upon the newborns

[40]To be born and worshipped by Indra on the Meru Mountain.

[41] Worship of the to-be Teerthankar by the Indras.

[42] Heir-apparentship.

[43] Empire

[44] Acquisition of the Chakra i.e. the nine stores and the fourteen jewels.

[45] Starting for universal conquest.

[46] Celebration of the conquest.

[47] Proper regulation of the subsidiary kings.

[48] Giving over the empire to the son and becoming an ascetic.

[49] To attain absolute knowledge.

[50] Raising up of the Samaya Saran.

[51] Preaching the truth by the Teerthankar.

[52] Drawing the soul into itself.

[53] Final Deliverance.

This is the progress of the layman to Moksha.

The jain Monk

Now a few words about asceticism, which comes after the eleventh stage of Iaymanship. ascetic has to possess twenty-eight primary qualities, namely, the five great vows [the Anuvriras in a stricter form], the five Samitis, the six necessaries beginning with Samayika, abandonment of the objects of the five senses, throwing off clothes drawing out the heir with one's own hands. One meal a day, standing up while taking his meal, eating tile food taken only in the palms of the hand, non bathing and non-rubbing of the teeth. The second¬ary qualities of an ascetic are eighty foru lack and they may referred to in special works on the subject. Hut their absence does not make the ascetic defective. But no defect in the twenty eight primary qualities is allowable in an ascetic. An ascetic should come for his meal to the town from his lonely abode; he should try five houses and should take his meal in the first of them where he may be willingly welcomed; if he is nowhere called in, he should return to his study and meditation and only try in the same way for his meals the next day. He should eat whatever is give without asking any thing else. In summer, he should practice his penance on the top of a hill; in winter, by the side of a river, and in autumn, under a tree.

The Theory of Pap and Punya

We now come to the fourth part of our lecture the nature of merit and sin. False belief, killing, False belief, killing, falsehood, theft, debauchery, unlimited luxury, covetousness, anger, pride fraud, love, biting behind one’s back, idleness, grossness, eating, uneatables – all these are sins. Compassion, benevolence, gentleness, charity, self-sacrifice, celibacy, appreciation, sympathy, praise of gods, reverence for the teachers, studiousness, modesty, philanthropy, self-maintenance, in a rightful way, pilgrimage, etc. are prescribed to be merits (virtues). There is no virtue in baths [of sacred rivers, as Brahmins hold]. The layman should bathe for cleanness and health but there is a bearing of river baths of seabaths on the virtues of a man. There is no religious significance of the eclipse or the equinoxes. There is no Shradh [the anniversary of dead forefathers] no Paksha, no giving of the Pinda to to departed souls, no worship of the cow, no worship of the Tulsi shrub of the Vad tree. We shall take up the fifts part of the lecture viz – the nature of the binding of Karma.

This topic has been mostly dealt with in the second part of the lecture. The soul is roving in worldly existence owing to its connection with Karma from time without beginning. The connection breaks off only by the extirpation of the latter. In sight and knowledge are the essences of the soul. Whatever is believed and known by the soul, attracts the soul with love or hatred. The development of this love of hatred is the bondage of Karma. Here comes our next subject.

The Nature of Moksha

Moksha, its nature and its path. It has been already explained to the freedom of the soul from every karma. In the progress of the soul from the state of bondage to total freedom, there are successive changes in its state, called Gunasthanas, fourteen in number.

The Gunasthans

The first is Mithyatva Gunasthan, where the soul is completely immersed in all the Karmas. The soul does not know its true good, when by some cause it happens to have faith in the right path, it reaches the third or the fourth step of merit. On the fourth step, the faith is pure. On the third it is mixed with a certain amount of illusion and thus that step is called the step of mixed merit. The soul sometimes falls back to the first step. On its way back, its passes the second step called the Sasadan step. Until the fifth step is ascended, faith alone is right, on reaching which the soul must also guide its conduct rightly. So a man who observes either one or all of the vows belonging to the eleven stages of laymanship is on this – Sanyatasanyatstep of merit. Keeping the great vows of the ascetics, a man rises to the sixth step. Here the sins due to physical grossness, are alone committed by the soul. These two disappear before the next the Appramatta-step is reached. The eighth step, as its name indicates gives the man experience of unique nature. Here a man increases his concentration by the Yogas and the coils of Karmas are fast unloosened.

The ninth step – called the Anivrith Karam – makes very small changes in the above. On the next step, the passions, become very weak and so it is called the Sookshma – Samparaya. On the eleventh, the passion are pacified. But from here a descent to the sixty step is possible. The first three classes of Karmas have to be totally destroyed in order to reach the twelvth-step. The first two parts of pure contemplation are present here. Any comtemplation are present here. Any explanation of the Jain Yoga would carry us beyond the scope of the lecture and so the point has to be rather dropeed in obscurity here.

This concentrated contemplation carries the soul up to the thirteenth step, where eternal wisdom, illimitable insight, everlasting happiness and unbounded prowess bless the soul. When this absolute knowledge is acquired, Kuber and other heavenly beings raise the Samayasarana where the twelve conferences meet to hear eternal wisdom from the Kevali. After prayers are offered, the Kevali goes about preaching truth until when the days of deliverauce approach, he takes to the third part of pure contemplation (Shukladhyan). Here the soul reaches every part of the universe and is yet within the body whose connection alone remains now. The last part of contemplation follows on, when the fourteenth step is ascended the body disappears like burnt camphor. This is the Nirvana. The going of the Soul to the pure place, called the Shidha Shila from whence it returns not, is the Moksha. In numerable delivered souls exits and are to be there for ages that never were begun and which never close. The Sidhha soul has eight characteristics,

(1) Rightfulness
(2) Absolute knowledge
(3) Illimitable insight
(4) Boundless prowess
(5) Minuteness
(6) Power to reach every where
(7) Power to be big and small and
(8) Unaffectedness. This moksha is obtained by means of that jewels whose acquisition is gradual through the fourteen steps of merits, described before.

Image worship Justified

We now take up Image-worship. The Image or the picture' is intended to give us a view of the all-knowing beings in their concentrated posture-the high-souled beings who attained' Godhood by the slow path along the fourteen Gunasthanas, after throwing off the sensual life for the sake of' ship Justified asceticism. Even now, photos and statues of great men are placed in private houses and public situations in order that they should remind us of their virtues. Images are worship¬ped with the same object, and the worship is not of the stone¬ or metal of which the images are made but of the virtues they represent. They also teach us vividly what the posture of con¬templation with concentration is.

The posture of a jain Image

The images arc either in sitting or erect postures and the postures are called Padmasan or Kayotsarg a respectively. The erect image has its feet close to each other, the hand left straight down and the half-closed eyes pointed to the end of the nose. In the sitting attitude, the eyes are in the same position but the feet are twined into each other and tile up-turned palms of the hands are placed together in tile centre of the folded feet. Neither cloth nor ornament has any place on the images. No female image is to be in their vicinity. It is in fact an embodiment of a perfectly dispassionate mind in complete self concentration.

Illustrated from a Brahmin Work

The best attitude of Yoga as given in the Bhagavadgita Ch. Vi transcribed below is found in these images. Says the Gita :- “With body, head and neck erect and immoveable; with eyes directed straight to the end of the nose and without trembling; with the mind kept at complete rest and fearless; keeping celibacy; subduing the heart; devoted to me (the God); a man should remain, with faith on me, in the state of concentration. He who thus concentrates the attention and pacific the mind is contemplation, becomes united with me and obtains final peace.” A similar description is met with in Ch. V, 26, 27 and 28 of the same (non Jain) work.

Worship described

The householder worships the image with eight classes of things while the ascetic only offer salutations to them. The eight fold worship is (1) Bathing the image with water (2) Sprinkling of Keshar and Chandan; before the image (3) Offering the rice in front; (4) placing flowers before the image (5) offering (boiled rice) Naivedya (Sugar –candy, etc); (6) Keeping up a light near the image (7) burning incense; (8) offering fruits. There are different hyms to be sung in offering each of these things. The eight together make the Arghya. The offerings are to be poured into three cavities in ground with the three fires in them – the Ahavaniya, the Garhapatya and the Dakshin fires. Worships are classed into (1) the worship of Arahants (2) the worship of Sidhas, etc all the worships consisting of praise of the virtues of the objects of worship. The offering are called Nirmalya and they are not to be taken for use or eaten by any one. It is said to be a great sin to do so.

Jainism compared with other religions

. About the non-estables in Jainism, the Bharat says – “Pilgrimage mediation and penance are in vain for thsose who use intoxicants, take their dinners at night and who eat roots of trees. The Bhagvat says with regards to the same subjects – Abandoning intoxicants, animal food and honey;’ giving up eating the five Udumbars (fruits full of minute lives); not eating at night, this is the characteristics of a Brahmin. So again says the Shiva Dharma In liquors, flesh, honey and butter removed from curd innumerable small lives take birth and die away. There are Hindu authorities to which may be added. The Parsee, the Mussalam and the Christian as regards non-killing eating flesh, and drinking wines. …………., the author of the person sacred work, the Shananama says:- “the son-in-law of the prophet Mohamed-Ali prohibited flesh-eating, Akabar (The emperor) desisted fromn flesh eating every Friday, Sunday, eclipse day and the whole day of the Faruardin month. Mohamed himself has strictly ordered non-killing n front of the Kayaba at Meena. Even a Mohamadan passing through the Salkeshareayat to the Tareekat does not eat flesh. Drinking and debauchery are strictly prohibited to the Isalmites. The Karan commands truthfulness and non-stealing of the Ten Commandments, those that refer to the non-killing, stealing, purity of character, drinking, etc are quite in consonance with Jainism. The Bible prescribes vegetarianism. "Behold!, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth and every. tree which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat." [Genesis chapt J, 29. J "While the flesh was yet be tw een their teeth, ere it was chew. ed, the wrath of the LORD 'vas kindled against the people, and the LORD smote the people with a very great plague." (See verse 33 and also verses 19 and 20) General Boot h of the Salvation Army, himself a vegetarian, preaches that creed to all his followers. Vegetarian societies are founded even where in Europe and they Justify vegetarianism on hygienic, economical, ethical and religious grounds. So it will be seen that on vegetarian and temperence grounds, many other re]jgiuns agree with Jain doctrines. It was an error of Shankaracharya to stigmatise Jainism as being atheistic. In writing his commentary on the Surra …………………..Shankar has tried to refute the Syadyad of Jain Logic. This attempt displays the ignorance of Shankar about the doctrine criticized and his prejudice against Jainism. Anekant means the existence of many qualities is one and the same object. The same man in spoken of a s father, uncle, father-in-law, son-in-law and so on, in his different relations. To his son, he is father, to the nephew, he is uncle. So again a man is both wise and ignorant- the first with reference to an ignorant man, the second with reference to a wise man. Every thing.is existent in some respects from the point of view of the Swachatustaya and non-existent in 'some respects from the' point of view of the Parachyatusiaya. There is nothing existent or non-existent in all respects. N. P. 'Even Shankaracharya himself avails of the same mode of reconciling opposite views by calling the one true 'ordinary' or Vyavahartuli and its opposite as also true Paramartliatah, i. e. from the stand-point of the highest considerations. For ins¬tance, the inconsistency of the Gita in the following. The Gita Days in one place that the universe is not created by any one. This view is contradicted hy the same work when it says that God pevades every being and puts in illus io n by means of his Maya.

To say that God does nothing and also that he does every thing is obviously contradictory. This is reconciled by saying that the two are true from who different point of view. Even now we look at everything from ethical, hygienic and other points of view. This subject is very clearly explaned by Dr. Bhandarkar in his report regarding the Deccan College Manuscript.

He says

"There are two ways of looking at things, one called Dravyaarthikanayaya and other Paryayarthikanyaya. Tile production of a jar is the production of some thing not previously existing, if We take the latter points of view i.e. as a Paryaya or modification; while it is not the Production of something not previously existing, 'when. we look at it from the former Point of view, i, e. as a Dravya, or Substance. So when a Soul becomes, through his merits or demerits, a god, a man, or a denizen of hell, from the first point view, the being is the same, but frolic the second he is not the second, i, e . different in each case So that, you can affirm Or deny something of a thing at one and the same time. This, leads to th3 celebrated 'Saptabhangi Nyaya' or the seven modes of assertion. You can affirm existence of a thing from one point of view (Syad asti). deny it from another (Syad nasti); and affirm both existence and non existene at the same time from the same point of view. You must say that thing can not be so spoken of (Syad Avastavya); similarly under certain circumstance the affirmation of existence is not possible (Syad asti Avaktavya); of non-existence (Syad nasty Avaktavya) and also of both (Syad nasti Avaktavya). What is meant by these seven modes is that a thing should not be considered as existing thing. It may be in one place and not in another, at one time and not at another , etc. it is not meant by these modes that there is no certainty. Or that we have to deal with probabilities only, as some scholars have thought. All that is implied is that every assetion which is true is true only under certain conditions of space, time etc. this is the substance of the section which treats of Dravya samanya or Dravya generally”.

Vedas on Jainism

Had Jainism been atheistic the Vedas would not have referered to it in respectful terms. Says the Rig Veda :- I bow down to the twenty four Sidhas, Rishabh to Vardhman celebrated in all the worlds. Similiary, says the Yajaman “ We propitiate the naked God who are holy and who purify others. So again vide yajur Veda, XXV, 19. The Same Veda refers to Nemi, one of the JainTeerthankars. Thus it will be seen that many Jain prophets like, Rishabh, Suparhya, Nemi and Vardhaman are worshiped and praised in the Vedas, hence Jainism can not be called Nastika (in the sense of ‘profine’ or unvedic’ it also appeals to the prior to the Vedas.

Non-jain reference to Jainism

Rama says in Brihad Yogavashishtha that he wished to get peace “like Jin. Dakshin-Murta-Sahasranama says: “Said Shiva ‘a Jain is one who lives Jainism subdues anger and conquers disease. Bhartrihari speaks to the dispassionate of the Jinas as being matchless. Such instance may be multiplied manifold, but it will take long time. These reference further support our point. Panini’s authority may be added to this. He dfines Nastikas as those who deny the existence of Post – mundane world. The jains can of course stand on this ground in trying to rebut the charge. They accept sixteen Swargas or heavens, seven hells and his world through which a soul wanders according to its karmas.

Non-creation Theory

Some, however, base their charges upon the non-creation theory of Jainism. Jainism hold that God is the creator of the universe only from certain points of view, not absolutely, in so far as he explained to the world the true good of the soul, pointed out to all the means of livelihood and inculcated the truth of the law of Karmas, God is called the maker of the universe. But Jainism denies that God is the source of all human actions,good and bad; for, this is opposed to the very nature of God. To say that a thief commits theft because he was so moved by Gods will and yet God punished him for theft, is clearly inconsistent. There can be no satisfactory solution of the difficulty here arising. Hence it is that great philosopher have denied creation by God. For example see the passage quoted from the Bhagavat Gita on page 53. Here the will of God being the source of any The usual reading of this Shloka substitutes for in 1 & 2. But the reading here adopted is met within a Jain work, some centuries, old, The Mokshmargaprakasha. Besides. It gives better meaning to the Shloka Editor. Activity is deined. The falling of the rain, the milk in the breast of the mother, the heat given out by fire or the light of the sun are not creations of God but they exist by their own nature. If God is to take credt for these, it is as well that he should be censured for creating famines. Plagues, inundations and earthquakes. The Hindu Vedant says that the origin of evils is in the of God and of good things, in the of God. The Christians and the Muslims consider Saitan to be the doer of evils. God is said to be full of all the best qualities but not of all the vices.

The jain go further and limit the duty of God to explaining the right path. Christianity concurs with it in saying that god has handed over the duty of giving judgements to his son- In substance this doctrine means that God is the legislative power while his son is the executive. This resembles the Jain doctrine in many respects, in so far as it holds that the Teerthankars to not have the ‘Executive’ Powers in them.

The Eight Karmas

Aristotel on creation

Aristotel, the celebrated Greek Philosopher who lived in 384 B.C. refers to God in these terms :- “Not taking recognizance of and not regarding the affairs of the world, which owed not its existence to him, to which his presence and influence do not extend.”-

Material Prosperity of the Jains

We shall now take up the last part of our discourse – the individual and national welfare arising from Jainism. From the above account some may be lead to think the Jainism aims at after-life happiness and that there is no provision in it for worldly and natural happiness. But the fact is that Jainism is a source of happiness in this world and even from a national point of view. Worldly comfort consists in materials like food, clothes, wealth etc. now the Jains, 2.2 million in number are spread over Punjab and Kashmir in the North, Mysore and Rameshwar in the South and Bombay, Gujarat and Rajasthan in the west. But not one will be found to wander over public streets in search of food. Famine, fire or floods may have reduced some to destitution; but they are very few. Most of the Jains are merchants, money lenders of land holders. A few are servants. But they are well-doing men as a class. Some are owners of lakhs. A few are owners of crores tool. Thus the Jains are a materially prosperious class. We shall consider their ethical condition now.

The proportion of Jail-going population is a good index to the moral condition of a community. The following table, drawn from the Jail Administration Report of the year 1891 for the Bombay presidency gives useful figures.

Thus if a man but observes the vows avoiding their faults , he has no fear from the Penal Code. A Shravaka every day recites the Pratikraman which gives him the habit of being free from offence. Some of the Gothas in it are given below in English. “I forgive all. Let all forgive me. I am friend to all; enemy to none. I unloosen the knot of anger, hatred, pleasure, humility, eager desire, fear, pain liking and aversion.” After recounting the wrongs doe by mind, tongue or act, goes on the man “Ah! What evil have I done! Ah! What evil idea have I enter tainted! Ah what wicked words have in uttered! I repent it; my heart is deeply affected!” The pratikraman proceeds to recount the “Faults “ of vows committed to confess and repent them and then Pratyakhyan – or a determination not to recommit the same folios. This is to be fund in Shravaka pratikramana.

National Welfare

I have hitherto described how Jainism affects the national welfare and mortality of people. National welfare depends on the moral condition of society. Morality begets mutual trust which strengthens union. Union makes great achievement possible. The Joint stock companies of Bombay, Ahmadabad, etc. are supported greatly by Jain capital, Of late, however. the Jains have been confining their attention to secondary matters to the detriment of their primary Interests. So they have not only lost learning and political power but they have come to lose every influence in the administration of the country. If they attend to their chief principles, they will achieve their own good. Jainism offers direct happiness by the aid of the law of cause and effect. No miracles are invented for the purpose. The results good or good that it promise, are proved to be so with convincing reasons.

Several things are to be told with various objects; of these objects the principal and secondary ones differ according to the circumstances; for instance, the Jain religion prescribes drinking of water after filtering and boiling it and this command id zealously obeyed by the Jains. In this non-killing is said to be the primary object; yet sanitation too is one of its motives. It is also meant for preventing poisonous germs from objects in disallowing eating at night. Still the object of sanitation goes along with it. Poisonous bacilli multiply numerously at night. Hence the modern science of medicine advises to stay at night out of the town in the days of plague and to take care about their entrance into the eatables. Also if there is not objection to eat at night, there remains no rule as to how far meals should be taken at night. consequently eating at night goes on up to 11 or 12. Owing to this eating irregularly at night, sound sleep can not be obtained and we can not get up early in the morning. So the violations of the laws of sanitation gives rise to disease due to indigestion.