Jin Puja

Jin Puja Process involved in entering to leaving Jain Mandir

1. Introduction and Background

Before we start, we must emphasize that there are many different ways of doing Jinpujä. What you read here is not the only way. Keeping in mind the Jain[1] doctrine of Anekäntväd (multiple viewpoints), we want to make it clear that it is not our intention to offend anyone.

1.1 Rites & Rutuals in Jainism

The one and only purpose of Jainism is to attain Moksha[2] (salvation , freedom from cycle of life and death or eternal happiness). Rites and rituals are small but important beginning steps towards the path of Moksha. The rites and rituals consist of Bhakti and Worship.

Unlike the general concept of rites and rituals, Jains do not perform rites and rituals for worldly happiness, for a certain miracle or to please some divine power. In Jainism, the purpose of rites and rituals is to pay our respect to Tirthankars for the salvation they have attained, for showing us the path of purification (Moksha), and to get the inspiration to become like them. The aspirant (Sädhak) attains the inner peace by performing the rites and rituals, and suppresses his/her passions such as anger, ego, deceit and greed. The Bhakti and Worship should imprint an everlasting impression of Jain principles in the minds of an aspirant (Sädhak). Rites and Rituals performed with pure thoughts and true Jain principles of Ahimsä in mind should lead the aspirant to believe that path to Moksha can only be attained by acquiring the three jewels, namely, Samyak Jnäna (Right Knowledge), Samyak Darshan (Right Perception), and Samyak Chäritra (Right Conduct). Then slowly but surely, the aspirant sets out on the path of salvation. Tirthankars were humans like us before they attained Moksha. Similarly, we human beings can attain Moksha and become like THEM.

1.2. Why do we need a worshipping place? Can't we do it in our own home?

The worshipping place provides the necessary environment for spiritual practice (sädhanä) as the school provides for education. Once the aspirant has advanced spiritually, he/she can continue the spiritual activity at any place. But for most of Shravaks[3] (householders), they need to depend upon external sources such as temple to make initial progress in the spiritual direction. It is also acceptable for an aspirant to practice his/her religion from home as long as he/she achieves the similar or better results. For most Shrävaks, combination of both is the best option.

1.3. What is the importance of Pratimäjis with Prän Pratishthä?

The word Pratishthä is a Sanskrit word made of two words. The word Pra means Pratyaksha or “in person” or “live”, and the word Tishta means to install or to establish. The combined meaning of the word Pratishthä means to establish live image of Veetträg[4] Bhagawän[5](s) in the temple for spiritual grace and fellowship. There is a specific Prän Pratishthä ceremony which auspiciously installs "living-ness" in the Pratimäjis. In other words, Pratimäjis with Prän Pratishthä are the next best to a Tirthankar[6] in person. As you know we do not have any Tirthankar on this planet. Therefore, a Pratimäji with Prän Pratishthä. is like a "Tirthankar" residing in our temple.

1.4. Why do we need to do Jinpujä ?

Jinpujä is a spiritual ritual designed for Shrävaks. The presence of image of Tirthankar provides mental peace and harmony and encourages one to detach his/her self from the worldly desires. The forum that Pujäs provide help people discipline themselves. It is considered to be a simple, preliminary step towards the attainment of Moksha. We pray and /or worship to pay our respects to the Thirthankars because THEY have attained the liberation, THEY explained the path of liberation and to get an inspiration to become like THEM.

1.5. Bhakti & Pujä (Devotion & Worship)

Bhakti (devotion) and Pujä are interwoven with the daily life of a Jain and is considered as part of daily conduct (Vyävhar). Bhakti and Pujä shows the purest of soul in the form of daily conduct. This daily conduct should lead us to the path of (Nischäy), the realization of absolute purest form of our own-self, the soul. There are nine types of Bhakti: (1) Hearing God's name (Shravan), (2) Devotional singing (Kirtan), (3) Remembering (Smaran), (4) Worshiping ( Jinpujä ), (5) Bowing down (Vandanä), (6) Adorning (Archanä), (7) To seek refuge in complete surrender - Servitude (Sharan), (8) Friendly sentiment (Maitri) and (9) Dedication of self (Nivedan). The Jinpujä process developed by our great Ächäryas include all nine types of Bhakti.

1.6. Types of Pujä

There are two types of Jinpujä: Saguna & Nirguna. The worship of Jina in the form or Image is called Saguna Jinpujä. The worship of Jina as formless (spiritual idea of Jina) is called Nirguna Jinpujä. The Saguna worship of the Parmätmä (idol) is of eight-fold (Ashtaprakäri). We require the medium of an Idol or image for worship till we reach the 7th Gunasthän[7] (Seventh Stage in thespiritual development). Nirguna worship consists of devotion and meditation of the Formless one. Once the aspirant is spiritually advanced to significantly higher spiritual level (the stage of the 8th Gunasthän and beyond), where Saguna worship is abandoned. A beginner requires the medium of Idol. While carrying on the Dravyapujä (Pujä that includes physical offerings such as Water, Chandan, Rice etc is known as Dravyapujä) we should do the Bhävpujä (mental / emotional act of Pujä without any physical offerings).

There are various types of Pujäs: some of the common Pujäs are (1) Eight-fold Jinpujä (Ashthaprakäri or Ashthadravya Pujä), (2) Athär (18) Abhishek Pujä, (3) Panch Parmeshti Pujä (4) Snätra Pujä. There are five types of Pujäs to twenty one types of Pujäs.

1.7. How to be engrossed in Jinpujä?

To be engrossed completely in Jinpujä, the aspirant should have Tadgat Chitt (full concentrration), Samay Vidhän (observance of the proper timing), Bhäv Vruddhi (ever-increasing devotion), Vismay (admiration - astonishment), Pulak (delight) and Pramod-pradhän (appreciation of great qualities of the Tirthankar).

By performing Jinpujä on a regular basis with pure feelings (bhäv - mental / psychic aspect), it can remove eight types of karma: knowledge-obscuring karma, perception / awareness obscuring karma, belief and conduct diluting karma, energy obscuring karma, life-span determining karma, body-determining karma, status determining karma, and pain-pleasure producing karma. Thus, liberate our selves from the bondage of karma forever.

1.8. Purity to be Observed for performing Pujä:

The purity of the surroundings inevitably affects one’s purity of thought. Purity of the Jinpujä ceremony is integral to the proper completion of Jinpujä.

Physical purity: The aspirant should take a bath using the necessary amount of water to clean his/her body. For Digambar Pujä: After wearing Pujä clothes, take Kesar (saffron paste) on your right ring finger and place it on various parts of the body to symbolize that you are clean and ready to start the Pujä. In this order, you anoint the forehead, left and right earlobe, the neck, and near the belly button. Clean your fingers after this and do not use the same Kesar for Pujä.

Purity of clothes: We should have a special set of clothes worn only for pujä. The clothing should never have been worn while using the rest room and never have been worn while eating or drinking. Traditionally, garments should be generally white and unstitched. Men are recommended to wear dhoti and khesh. In contemporary times, women can wear almost anything as long as the clothes are new. For Digambar Pujä: the clothes must be handwashed clean. One must not have eaten or gone to the bathroom in those clothes

Purity of mind: While worshipping avoid stray thoughts. We should utter relevant verses and meditate on the virtues of the Bhagwän.

Purity of Ground: We should sweep the floor of the temple, clean and arrange the articles of worship.

Purity of Upakaran (items used in worship): We should buy good and clean items for worship.

Purity of money: Money to be used in religious purposes must be earned honestly. Ill-gotten wealth should not be used.

Purity of Ceremony: We should stop thinking of worldly affairs as soon as we are on our way to the temple. We should not carry out any worldly business in the temple area and shuld perform the Pujä ceremony systematically.

1.9. Namo Jinänam Jiabhyänam

As soon as we see the flag of the temple or its shikhar, we should feel happy and say ‘Namo Jinänam Jiabhyänam’ by bowing our head with folded hands. We do the same thing as soon as we see the Jin Murti in the temple.

1.10. How to stand in front of the Parmätmä?

While worshipping or doing darshan of the Parmätmä, men should stand on the right side and women should stand on the left side of the Parmätmä. This is done to observe the courtesy, and to allow others to see (darshan) the Parmätmä.

1.11. Whom to watch when we are in temple?

We should watch the Parmätmä without looking a) upwards, downwards or sideways; b) right or left or c) behind all the time when we are in the temple.

2.1. Basic Steps to be followed in the temple

2. Nisihi & Pranäm

We should utter words 'Nisihi' (to give up) thrice first time while entering the main door of the temple. It means that I will restrain myself from engaging in worldly activities, physically, verbally and mentally. Say ‘Namo Jinänam Jiabhyänam’ with folded hands while bowing the head as soon as we see Jin Murti in the temple. Then proceed to do the Jin Darshan of the Mul-Näyak.

There are three ways to do the Pranäm to Paramätmä: a) Bowing head with our both hands folded together. b) Bowing down by bending the upper part of our body half way and do Pranäm with folded hands. c) Bowing down by bringing the five limbs of the body together (two arms, two knees and the head) on the floor.

The second time 'Nisihi' is uttered before entering the inner temple (Gabhärä). This signifies that I am abandoning the activities relating to the temple matters. The third time 'Nisihi' is uttered after completion of Jin Pujä. This signifies that I will restrain myself from physical acts of worship (Dravya Pujä) before performing 'Chaitya Vandan' (Bhäv Pujä).

2.2. Pradakshinä

After the Jin Darshan of Mul-Näyak, we should proceed to perform three Pradakshinä (circumambulation) the Parmätmä (in Bhomati, also called Gomati), starting from the right of HIM. It is symbolic for acquiring virtues of right perception, right knowledge and right conduct.

While doing first Pradakshinä, we should recite the following:

  • Käl anädi anantthi, bhav-bhramanno nahi pär,
  • Te bhramanä niväravä, Pradakshanä daoo tran vär,
  • Bhamati mä bhamatä thakä, bhav-bhävath door paläy,
  • Jnän-darshan-chäritra roop, Pradakshanä tran devai.

While doing second Pradakshinä, we should recite the following:

  • Janm-maranädi savi bhay tale, sijhe jo darshan käj,
  • Ratna-trayi präpti bhani, darshan karo jin räj,
  • Jnän vadu samsaär mä, jnän-param such hetu,
  • Jnän vinä jagjivadä, na lahe tatva sanket.

While doing third Pradakshinä, we should recite the following:

  • Chay te sanchay karmno, rikta kare vali jeh,
  • Chäritra näm niryukte kahyu, vando te gunegeh,
  • Jnän darshan chäritra e, ratnatrayi nirdhär,
  • Tran Pradakshanä te kärane, bhavdhukh bhanjanjär.

If you do not remember the above then, we should recite hymns of an auspicious prayer like some hymns from the Ratnäkar Pachchisi or from Bhaktämar Stotra with full devotion while doing Pradakhanä. While performing Pradakshinä, we should bow our head with folded hands whenever we see the Parmätmä.

2.3. Chandan Preparation

After three Pradakshinä, we go the corner which is dedicated for Chandan preparation. Here we cover our mouth with Pujä-Rumäl and prepare the chandan for pujä. There is no need to use saffron. After, preparing the Chandan for pujä, we clean the area

2.4. Tilak (Ägnächakra)

Now, while seating in Padmäsän, we put a Tilak (vertical flame like) on the forehead. This means that we are obeying the commands of Tirthankar (His teachings) for liberation of our soul. Round Tilak is not recommended. After putting Tilak, the aspirant with folded hands should say "Namo Jinänam" as if the Parmätmä is in the front of him / her.

2.5. Bell ringing

As we get closer to the Ghabhärä, we ring the bell three times to symbolize that I will stay away from the activities of the material world and will become engrossed in Jin Pujä by my body, speech and mind. The bell is rang second time when ‘Abhishek Pujä’ is about to start.

Third time we ring the bell after the completion of Jin Pujä and befor we start the Bhäv Pujä (Chatya-vandan). This time we ring the bell twenty seven times to symbolize twenty seven special characteristics of a Jain monk. Because, the ownership of Bhäv pujä (Chaitya-vandan) belongs to Jain monks. Now, we are going to become a Jain monk while performing Chaitya-vandan. Therefore, to respect and praise the special twenty seven characteristics of Jain monk, we ring the bell twenty seven times.

Forth time we ring the bell while leaving the temple. This time we ring the bell seven times symbolizing the seven types of fear that we want to get rid of in order to be freed from the miseries of the material world.

2.6. Jin Pujä in Ghabhärä

After ringing the bell three times, say ‘Nisihi’ three times before entering the Gabhärä. Mouth and nose should be covered by Pujä-rumäl before entering the Gabhär. After entering the Gabhärä do Pranäm to Paramätmä by bending the upper body and with folded hands, and a recite an auspicious Stuti.

When we enter the Gabhärä, we may notice two figures under the seat of Mul-Näyak, one showing tiger’s face and other one showing lion’s face. Tiger symbolizes “Räg” (attachment) and lion symbolizes “Dwesh” (aversion). This signifies that there are two elements, attachment and aversion, which are root cause of our miseries in the material world. Our Paramätmä have eradicated them totally, attained the everlasting happiness, Moksha. And we want to attain the same.

There are three types of Pujä: a) Ang Puiä - We worship the Parmätmä by touching it. It consists of Jal-Pujä, Chandan-Pujä and Pushpa-pujä. b) Agra Pujä - We worship the Parmätmä by standing in front of Him by waving incense, lamp (Dipak) and swaying the Chämar. Then we worship the Parmätmä by making a rice-swastik and placing sweets and fruits on it before the Parmätmä. c) Bhäv Pujä - Chaitya Vandan, Stavan and Stuti constitute the Bhäv Pujä.

The follwing is the brief explanation of Ashthprakäi Pujä per Shwetämbar tradition. Ashthprakäi Pujä per Digambar tradition is briefly explained in the Section 3.0 This particular Jinpujä is usually performed in the morning. Eight different rituals are performed during the Pujä: jal (water), Chandan (sandalwood paste), Pushpa (flowers), dhoop (incense), dipak (light), akshat (rice), naivedya (sweets), and fal (fruits).

1. Jala Pujä: (Water):

Before performing this, everything (like flowers), from the Parmätmä should be removed. Then insects (if any) on the Parmätmä be removed gently by using a peacock feather-brush. After this, we should sprinkle water (abhishek) on the Parmätmä. Then remove stale sandal paste by wet cloth (Potu), apply the Välakunchi (brush of hair-like Chandan sticks) gently on the places where dry paste is stuck.

Water symbolizes life's ocean of birth, death, and misery. This Jinpujä reminds that one should live his life with honesty, truthfulness, love, and compassion towards all living beings. This way one will be able to cross life's ocean and attain liberation (Moksha).

2. Chandan Pujä: (Sandal-wood):

Wipe the Parmätmä by three pieces of cloth to remove all water, and make the Parmätmä completely dry. This Pujä involves pujä of nine limbs: (1) two toes of the feet (symbolizes the preservation of the energy – Viryarakshä), (2) two knees (symbolizes self-efforts & self-initiatives - Swädhinatä), (3) two wrists (symbolizes donation, good deeds), (4) the shoulders (symbolizes absence of ego and mighty shoulders that swam thru the ocean of misery), (5) the head (symbolizes moksha), (6) the forehead (symbolizes third eye, inner eye to the self), (7) the throat (symbolizes the most auspicious speech), (8) the chest (symbolizes purity of heart by eradication of attachment and aversion) and (9) the naval (symbolizes three jewels – perfect perception, perfect knowledge and perfect conduct). There is a particular - spiritual aspiration is associated with pujä of each limb. Chandan symbolizes knowledge (jnana). By doing this Jinpujä , one should thrive for right knowledge.

3. Dhup Pujä: (Incense): Dhup symbolizes monkhood[8] life. While burning itself, incense provides fragrance to others. Similarly, true monks and nuns spend their entire life selflessly to benefit all living beings. This Jinpujä reminds that one should thrive for an ascetic life.

4. Dipak Pujä: (Candle): The flame of Dipak represents a pure consciousness, i.e. a soul without bondage of any karmas or a liberated soul. By doing this Jinpujä one should thrive to follow five great vows; non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity, and non-possession. Ultimately these vows will lead to liberation.

5. Akshat Pujä: (Rice): Rice is a kind of grain which is non-fertile. One cannot grow rice plants by seeding rice. Symbolically, it represents the last birth. By doing this Jinpujä one should thrive to put all efforts in life in such a way that this life becomes the last life, and there will be no more birth after this life. Literally, Akshat means unbroken, and it stands for unbroken happiness. The bright white color of rice represents the purity of our soul.

In Akshat Pujä, the aspirant makes a swastik using rice grains on a plate or a wooden plank (Pätalä). The swastik[9] sign symbolizes the samsärik cycle that is consisted of four destinies: 1. heavenly beings, 2. humans, 3. hell beings and 4. rest of the living forms (animals, plants, etc.). A given soul can be born unaccountable number of times in each type. Then he/she places three dots above the swastik sign. Three dots symbolize the three jewels - perfect perception, perfect knowledge and perfect conduct. These three provide the means for escaping the miserable samsarik cycle. Finally, he/she makes a half circle on the top of three dots and puts a dot in that half circle. This half circle figure with a dot symbolizes the place, sidhdhha-lok (upper portion of the universe) where the liberated souls are. The aspirant desires to be liberated from the samsarik cycle of four destinies by the means of right perception, right knowledge and right conduct and attain Moksha. The aspirant puts Sweet on the swastik symbolizing he/she wants to attain a foodless state (Anähäri - Siddha). In addition, the aspirant puts fruit on the siddhashilä symbolizing the fruit of the Jinpujä is the fifth state of liberation that is liberation.

6. Naivedya Pujä: (Sweets): Naivedya symbolizes tasty food. The aspirant puts the Naivedya on the siddha-shilä (made out of rice in the Akshat Pujä). By doing this Jinpujä , one should thrive to reduce or eliminate attachment to tasty food. Healthy food is essential for survival, however one should not live for tasty food. Ultimate aim in one's life is to attain Moksha where no food is essential for survival.

7. Fal Pujä: (Fruit): Fruit is a symbol of Moksha or liberation. . The aspirant puts the fruit on the Swastik (made out of rice in the Akshat Pujä). If we live our life without any attachment to worldly affairs, continue to perform our duty without any expectation and reward, be a witness to all the incidents that occur surrounding us, truly follow monkhood life, and have a love and compassion to all living beings, we will attain the fruit of liberation. This is the last Jinpujä symbolizing the ultimate achievement of our life.

After completion of Ang Pujä, you come out of the Gabhärä and perform Agra Pujä. After Agra Pujä, one may perform Darpan Pujä and then perform Chowri dance as explained in sub-sections 2.7 and 2.8.

2.9. Bhäv Pujä

There are three types of Bhäv Pujäs. In general, Chaitya Vandan is performed after the Ashtaprakäri Pujä.

2.10. Avasthä, Bhumi, Älamban, Mudrä and Pranidhan Triks

There are a total of ten triks (triks means a group of three): (1) Nisihi trik,(2) Pradakshinä trik, (3) Pranäm trik, (4) Pujä trik, (5) Avasthä trik, (6) Dishä trik (7) Bhumi trik (8) Älamban trik (9) Mudrä trik (10) Pranidhan trik.

Earlier, we have already mentioned about (1) Nisihi trik,(2) Pradakshinä trik, (3) Pranäm trik, (4) Pujä trik and (6) Dishä trik

(5) Ävasthä Trik:

a) Birth Stage - While doing Abbishek, (the ceremony of bathing), we should think that Indra and heavenly beings are performing the Abhishek on the Mount Meru upon the head of the newly born baby who is going to be Tirthankar
b) Kingship Stage - After worshipping the Parmätmä with sandal paste, flowers and ornaments, we should contemplate the kinghood of Tirthankar imagining Him seated on a throne.
c) Shraman (Ascetic) Stage - We look at the hairless head of Tirthankar and contemplate His Ascetic stage of life, wishing for ourself the same state in this life.

(7) Bhumi Pujan Trik:

Before doing Chaitya Vandan, we should sweep the ground with the help of our scarf or handkerchief in order to gently move insects and minute living beings from the area.

(8) Älamban Trik:

a) Varna-älamban - We should recite the sutras, stavanas and stuti correctly without skipping any letter or a word.
b) Arthav-älamban - We should think of the meaning of the words uttered by us.
c) Pratimav-älamaban - We should say prayers facing the Parmätmä.

(9) Mudrä Trik

(a) Yoga Mudrä - Fold the ten fingers into the form of a lotus, keep the elbow on the belly and recite the Chaitya Vandan up to Namuthunam.
(b) Jin Mudrä - Do Kausagga while standing up arid keeping two arms hanging down after reciting from Arihant-cheiyaname up to Anattha Sutra.
(c) Mukata Sukti Mudrä - Fold your two palms hollow like a pearl-shell and then touch your forehead and recite Jävanti Cheial, Jävant-Kevisähu and Jay viyräya.

(10) Pranidhan Trik - Chaitya Vandan is performed with full physical, verbal and mental concentration.

2.11. How to come out of the temple ?

After ringing the bell, you must leave the temple without turning your back towards the Parmätmä (Idol). You must retreat walking backwards and say “Ävissahi. After coming out of the temple, sit for a few minutes outside the temple visualizing the Parmätmä with eyes softly closed, steady body and full mental concentration.

3. Brief Description Ashtaprakäri (Eight Fold) Jinpujä per Digambar tradition

Abhishekh: Abhishekh is performed by the Pujäri (male); the rest of the members participate in reading the Jinpujä. Altar area is cleaned. Abhishek involves cleaning of the altar by sprinkling saffron water in the eight directions and cleaning of the Parmätmä, then wiping the Parmätmä dry by using dry cloth. Several kalashes (pots) of pure water is used in bathing the Parmätmä as the bell is rang and the Abhishekh path is read or Namokär Mahä Mantra is recited. The rest of the participants are reading or chanting the Abhishekh Path. Usually, there should be a continuous stream of water until the Abhishekh Path is complete. Then the Parmätmä is first wiped by wet cloth and then with a dry cloth.

Sthäpanä: Take three full cloves and hold one clove at a time between the two ring fingers. While keeping the clove head pointing forward and while chanting the sthäpanä, place the cloves in an elevated place. The first clove represents that May Dev-Shostra-Guru come into my thoughts, second clove represents that May Dev-Shostra-Guru stay in my thoughts, and third clove represents that May Dev-Shostra-Guru be near me.

Invocation: The rays of the sun of omniscience illuminate whose inner self, That voice of Jinendra expounds beautifully the fundamentals of our being, The monks who proceed on the path of right faith, knowledge, and conduct, I bow to thee, oh God, scriptures and monks of the Jain order, a hundred times. I implore of the trio to settle in my mind, while I am offering this homage.

4. Ärati, Mangal Divo and Shänti Kalash

4.1. Ärati

There are many meanings of Ärati. One meaning is to experience the spiritual joy from all directions (Ärati = Ä + Rati; Ä means from all sides and Rati means Joy – spiritual joy). When a religious activity is concluded with success, we do Ärati to express our spiritual joy. Ärati also means to seek the end of “Ärt” (misery). This material world (Samsär) is full of misery, and the aspirant is performing Ärati to free himself / herself from the cycle of the misery of the material world, cycle of birth and death. Third meaning is that to fill our inner selves with spiritual joy, and to end the mental unhappiness.

To free from the miserable cycle of the material world (Samsär), one needs to have bright light of five types of knowledge. That’s why we light five Dipaks (which has candle like flame). In front of these five lights, there is a symbol of a snake which indicates that delusion (Moha) is like snake and as snakes are afraid of fire, the delusion is conquered by the true knowledge.

The symbol of These five Dipaks are also symbol of five great vows (Panch Mahä Vrat) through its practice, one attains the salvation. Five Dipaks are also symbolic of practicing five Samitis (Restraints), It is also representative of restraining negative activities of five senses and five characteristics of Samyak Darshan (Right Perception).

Another way to understand the purpose of performing Ärati is that, to free our selves from the miserable cycle of material world, we need to detach our selves from all worldly attachments as five supreme beings (Panch Parmeshthi) have done it. To pay our spiritual tribute to these five Panch Parmeshthi, we light up five Dipaks, and we mentally contemplate that “I want to also give up all worldly attachments, and want to initiate myself (take Dikshä) to become a Sädhu (or Sädhvi) to free my self from four Sämsarik destinies and to attain the fifth destiny, Moksha.

4.2. Mangal Divo

Mangal means to eradicate bad karma (päp), to free our selves from Samsär (material world), to remove the darkness of ignorance, to have an auspicious opportunity to practice Right Religion and to practice the path that is beneficial to the Self (soul). Only path of Moksha is beneficial to our Self that is attained by eradicating all karma. By removing the darkness of karma, one enlightens himself / herself with the Absolute Knowledge (Keval Jnäna). One Dipak is used in Mangal Divo to symbolize the one and only Perfect Knowledge, Keval Jnäna through which the darkness of the ignorance is permanently removed, the miserable cycle of birth and death is permanently ended, the association with the foreign dust of karma is completely terminated, and the true qualities of the souls are forever realized. In other words, one Dipak in Mangal Divo symbolizes the one and only path of Moksha as expounded by Tirthankars. We should mentally contemplate while performing Mangal Divo that “I want to enlighten my inner Dipak (self) just like this Mangal Divo by attaining the perfect knowledge, Keval Jnäna by practicing the path of Moksha as expounded by Tirthankars.”

4.3. Shänti Kalash

This is performed for inner and external peace for everyone and everywhere in the universe. In the beginning, Namokär Mahä Mantra and Uvasaggaraham are recited, and then it is followed by Bruh-Shänti while maintaining a continuous flow of the Panchämrut from Kalash in to a Pot. In this process, the peace in the universe is prayed for by wishing good physical, verbal, mental and spiritual health to all living beings and absence of misery everywhere. This is done in the manner it was done by the heavenly beings and their king (Indra) while performing Janmäbhishek of Tirthankar on the Mount Meru. Aspirant pays his / her respect to all twenty four Tirthankars and prays for suppression of passions (Kashäy) everywhere. Inner and external peace is wished to the four folded community (Sangh) and to all living beings, guidance from Jain monks and nuns is sought, Mantras are recited, help from heavenly beings is sought, environment, that is free of diseases, wars, droughts, disturbances and unhappiness, is sought. The spiritual progress, contentment and well being for everyone is wished. It is prayed that every living being becomes free of all kind of fears, fear of water, fire, poison, animals, disease, war, enemy, robber, etc. It wished that each living being helps each other, everyone eliminates his/her own faults, and everlasting happiness for everyone is wished.